Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effect of Seed Hydromethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica L. on Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rat

Objectives: The present available drugs for diabetes management by insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more adverse effects. Search for new hypoglycemic drugs from herbal plants parts without or a minimum adverse effect is a challenges. Present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of hydromethanolic extract of seed of Tamarindus indica L covering the biochemical parameters for the management of streptozotocininduced diabetic rat.
Methods: Forty matured Wistar strain male albino rats, fasting blood glucose level 755 mg/dl and weighing 135±10 g were selected for this experiment. They were divided into four groups. Diabetes was induced by intramuscular injection of streptozotocin. Fasting blood sugar level was monitored by glucometer. Hydromethanolic extract (1:1) of seed of Tamarindus indica was administered at the dose of 80 mg/100 g body weight/day by gavage for 14 days to diabetic rats. Serum was separated and used for total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc) and also subjected to used for ELISA method for insulin assay. Activities of hepatic and renal biomarker enzymes were measured. The statistical analysis of the results was carried out using ANOVA followed by multiple two tail t test.
Results: Diabetic rats showed elevated blood glucose level and significant diminution in the activities of hexokinase activity in liver. Administration of hydromethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica seed to diabetic rats resulted a significant recovery of above mentioned parameters (P<0.05) side by side serum insulin level, glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle, along with diabetic dyslipidemia was protected in comparison to diabetic rats. Active biomolecule(s) present of this seed extract revealed the presence of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds. There was a significant diminution in the activities of hepatic and renal function biomarkers in diabetic rats treated with seed extract compared to only diabetic rats indicating the non toxic properties of this said extract against liver and kidney damage. Conclusion: It is concluded that the hydromethanolic extract of T. indica seed is capable of managing hyperglycemia, antihyperlipidemia and diabetes related complications. Hence this extract may be considered as one of the potential source for the isolation of new oral hypoglycemic drugs.

Author(s): Rajkumar Maiti, Debanka Sekhar Misra and Debidas Ghosh

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