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Abstract

Emerging genomic biomarkers for improving kidney, prostate, and bladder cancer health disparities outcomes

Recent advances in genomic and genetic technologies
have facilitated better health outcomes for
urologic cancer patients. Genomic and genetic heterogeneity
may contribute to differences in tumor
biology and urologic cancer burden across various
populations.
Keywords
GenomicsKidneyProstateBladderUrologic cancer
health disparities
Objective
To examine how emerging genomic and genetic biomarkers,
self-reported race, and ancestry-informative
markers are associated with kidney, prostate,
and bladder cancer outcomes.
Results
Genomic and genetic alterations found in African
American kidney cancer patients included distinct somatic
mutations, somatic copy number alterations,
chromosomal instability, germ-line risk alleles, and
germ-line genetic variants. These changes correlated
with improved risk prediction, prognosis, and survival;
and a predicted decrease in response to targeted
therapies. SNP risk alleles and ancestry-informative
markers were associated with improved risk prediction
in prostate cancer patients of both African and
European descent. AKT activation suggest differential
response to AKT-targeted therapies in African
American, Asian American, and Tunisian bladder
cancer patients. Both self-reported race and genetic
ancestry predicted urologic cancer risk prediction.
Conclusion
Precision medicine approaches that integrate population-
specific genomic and genetic information with
other known urologic cancer-specific characteristics
can improve outcomes and be leveraged to reduce
cancer health disparities. Further investigations are
necessary to identify novel genomic biomarkers with
clinical utility.


Author(s): Khadijah A. Mitchell Ph.D., Heinric Williams

Abstract | PDF

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