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Deficiency in ORC1 Affects Heterochromatin Organization, Sister Chromatid Cohesion and the Response to DNA Damage in Meier-Gorlin Syndrome

DNA replication origins are licensed by the pre-replication complex, which encompasses six components of the origin recognition complex (ORC), CDT1, CDC6, and the MCM helicase. Mutations in pre-replication complex components have been shown to cause Meier-Gorlin Syndrome (MGS) a disorder characterized by microcephaly, short stature, and patellar abnormalities. ORC components have also been shown to localize to heterochromatin and impact on the heterochromatin superstructure. Here, we show that deficiency in ORC1 in MGS patient cells impairs sister chromatid cohesion and formation of heterochromatin via a process we refer to as ‘decompaction’. Comparison to other human cell lines with disordered chromatin, ICF (Immunodeficiency- Centromere instability-Facial anomalies syndrome) and RETT syndrome, revealed that the effect of Orc1 deficiency on heterochromatin structure is profound in human cell lines. Depletion of ORC1 by si-RNA knockdown affects heterochromatin assembly and diminishes levels of HP1 and H3K9Me3.

Author(s): Meryem Alagoz

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