Critical Care 2019: Frequency of conversion to open in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in elective cases- Mohammad Ummair- North Cumbria University Hospital


Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common, minimal invasive procedure in general surgery and has replaced the invasive procedure of open cholecystectomy in the treatment of gall stones. In this study, we wanted to determine the frequency of conversion to open cholecystectomy in elective cases that underwent laparoscopic procedure. Materials & Method: This was a retrospective study conducted in surgical department of Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Peshawar, Pakistan. All the cases were performed by a single experienced General and Laparoscopic Surgeon. All patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n=531) from September 2012 to April 2018 were identified from the medical records maintained in the Department of Health Information and Management Systems. They were considered as 'converted' if laparoscopic cholecystectomy was started initially but due to any reason it could not be continued safely and a conversion to open was necessitated. Cases that required conversion to open procedure in laparoscopic cholecystectomy were analysed. The frequency of conversion to open and the factors responsible for such conversion were also noted. Results: A total of 531 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 48.82 years with a standard deviation of 15.06 years. Male and female patients were included in the study. Gender distribution among the 531 patients was analysed and showed that 115 (21.7%) of those recruited were male and the majority 416 (78.3%) were female. All patients were given standard laparoscopic surgery protocol under general anaesthesia. 54 (10.2%) patients were converted to open cholecystectomy whereas 477 (89.8%) ended up with planned laparoscopic procedure.

The conversion rate to open cholecystectomy in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our study was 10.2%. The most common cause of conversion was gall bladder empyema and adhesion around gall bladder.

The object of my study is to decide the recurrence of transformation to open cholecystectomy among male and female patients experiencing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It's a Cross sectional investigation led in Careful Departments Allied and DHQ Hospitals, Faisalabad from. Patients were chosen with non-likelihood advantageous testing method. 144 patients (72 in each gathering) between 25 to 60 years old of either sex with BMI fewer than 30 exposed to LC on elective rundown.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is viewed as the best quality level in rewarding indicative cholelithiasis. Its advantages contrasted with open cholecystectomy are lower grimness, shorter medical clinic remain, speedier recuperation and diminished postoperative agony. Change to open cholecystectomy is, be that as it may, even now important. Change will extend the methodology and medical clinic remain, and is related with expanded grimness. A scope of hazard factors has been proposed for this change. They are careful group ability, patients’ components and types of gear disappointment. With respect to the careful group has an ideal mastery and types of gear are accessible for smooth running of the strategy, the patients related factors needs to be investigated as purpose behind change. The male sexual orientation of the patient has been examined as a hazard factor for change to open medical procedure. In our examination the general pace of change was (6.9%) and the mean age of the patients was 44.79 years, this is contrast capable with study led in showing clinic at Karachi in which change rate was 6.5% what's more, mean age was 41.25years. In study directed at tertiary network medical clinic transformation rate was (4.9%) and mean time of patients changed over to open was 66.1years.In another explanatory investigation Daradkeh13 announced a transformation pace of (2.6%) from LC to OC, Ishizaki et al14 announced (7.5%) change rate and Ibrahim et al15 portrayed up to (10.3%). Concerning sexual orientation the transformation rate was higher in guys. In this investigation transformation rate in male is (11.1%) and (2.8%) in females while in study directed at a network emergency clinic it was discovered more in guys (9.1%) when contrasted with females (3.5%).12 In the study led in showing medical clinic at Karachi 11 16.45% guys required change when contrasted with 5.09% females, the proportion of male change is all the more again preferring our results. In another investigation led at general instructing medical clinic change rate gave off an impression of being fundamentally higher for men (20.4%) than ladies (9.2%) and they announced the male sexual orientation as the autonomous prescient factor for change to open. Explanations behind transformation saw in our investigation were over the top dying, biliary spillage and bonds. The reasons for change in other contemplates incorporate the troublesome life structures at Calot's triangle (54.32%), intense aggravation in (52.27%) and bonds from constant cholecystitis in (36.36%) notwithstanding gear disappointment in (14.81%) of cases. In differentiation to this our investigation indicated normal purposes behind transformation as dying (100%) in female and (62.5%) in male and (25%) of male were changed over because of biliary break in fixation (12.5%) because of grips. In the other examination bonds were the most regular explanation behind change (40.4%) fallowed by CBD injury (1.8%). 12 Yet in another examination the most successive purposes behind transformation saw as fibrosis of Calot's triangle (30%) and attachments (27%). In another examination change was because of solidified Calot's triangle in (half) of cases fallowed by draining and troublesome life structures (25%) each. The explanation behind the expanded danger of change for men isn't clear. It may be conceivable that incendiary procedure might be progressively forceful in male bringing about additional thick bonds. Infection introduction may be postponed in guys. Progressively visit relationship with extreme, intense and interminable malady has likewise been hypothesized. It is for the most part realized that men have an up to twofold increment of instinctive fat tissue contrasted with ladies, which may clarify specialized trouble and expanded change rate in men.



The aftereffects of present investigation show that the term and transformation rate to open cholecystectomy is more in male than in female patients. This converts into troublesome analyzations during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in male patients intervention is suggested in male symptomatic gall stones disease.

Author(s): Mohammad Ummair

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