Effective and safe vaccine adjuvants are needed to appropriately augment mucosal vaccine effects. Our previous study demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Peyer’s patch resident Alcaligenes stimulated dendritic cells to promote the production of mucosal immunity-enhancing cytokines (e.g., IL-6 and BAFF), thus enhancing antigen-specific immune responses (including IgA production and Th17 responses) without excessive inflammation. Here, we chemically synthesized Alcaligenes lipid A, the biologically active part of LPS, and examined its efficacy as a nasal vaccine adjuvant for the induction of protectively immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Mice were nasally immunized with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) as a vaccine antigen for S. pneumoniae, together with Alcaligenes lipid A. Alcaligenes lipid A supported the generation of high levels of PspA-specific IgA and IgG responses through the augmentation of germinal center formation in the nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs). Moreover, Alcaligenes lipid A promoted PspA-specific CD4+ Th17 responses in the CLNs and spleen. Furthermore, neutrophils were recruited to infection sites upon nasal infection and synchronized with the antigen-specific T and B cell responses, resulting in the protection against S. pneumoniae infection. Taken together, Alcaligenes lipid A could be applied to the prospective adjuvant to enhance nasal vaccine efficacy by means of augmenting both the innate and acquired arms of mucosal immunity against respiratory bacterial infection.