Traditional system of medicinal consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Pierre is one amongst these, found all over the world. It is commonly known as ‘Kulanjan’, and has been recognized in different traditional system of medicines for the treatment of various diseases of human beings. Different parts of this plant are traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of ailments including anti-fungal, anti-tumor, Antihelmintic, anti-diuretic, anti-ulcerative, disease of heart, rheumatic pains, chest pain, dyspepsia, fever, diabetes, burning of liver and kidney disease to list of few. Therefore, the present review aimed to compile up to date and comprehensive information of Alpinia galanga with special emphasis on its photochemistry, various scientifically documented pharmacological activities, traditional and folk medicine uses along with its role in biofuel industry.