The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review of related literature on the environmental and health impacts of fires at landfills. There has been an increasing amount of municipal solid waste in developing countries, which has contributed to frequent fires occurring at landfill sites. Residents have been affected by these fires, especially because the landfills are located close to several densely populated residential communities. The philosophical foundation guiding this research is pragmatism. Additionally, the theoretical perspective that is closely linked to pragmatism and is guiding this research is the environmental justice theory. Consequently, the results obtained will be analyzed to form the basis on which future studies can be done, and legislation and policies can be developed to protect the environment, enhance the quality of social and economic lives of the citizens who reside in the vicinity of the landfills. The methodology, will involve a systematic review of pertinent materials, which will be used to answer the following questions: (1) What environmental and health effects of fires at landfill on the public?, (2) To what extent are the local communities impacted by fires at landfills?.