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A Review of Improving Theprotein Quality with the Composition of Quality Traits of Maize (Zea mays L.) Grain and Possible Breeding Techniques

Maize is the second most vital among cereals next to wheat which is produced as food and feed intake globally. However the biological protein value of normal maize is low and deficient in essential amino acids lysine, tryptophan and threonine. Appropriate diet is crucial for health, physical and mental welfare for individuals. But apposite diet relics a contest mainly highest in African critically in the communities where highly depend on maize as a diet. The most imperative solustion was the advancement of quality protein maize (QPM) payable investigation of mutant opaque-2 gene which enhances the levels of lysine and tryptophan in the endosperm. This paper reviews certain current accomplishments in the revolution of QPM varieties through conventional and molecular breeding techniques under stressed and optimum soilconditions. It is also obvious that certain QPM geno types have been developed and released mainly by CIMMYT and International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (ITTA) globally applying both breeding approaches in the past and the present. However the review addressed certain gaps in research efforts and defies as well as adoption and promotion of QPM varieties emphasized and ideas to impressed. Various conventional breeding approaches have been used to develop and released QPM varieties in various soil conditions. However the application of molecular methods will advance the proficiency and speed of QPM improvement, the charge inferences could emped these technologies in the emerging countries. Further stress should be given for breeding QPM in stress tolerance (acidic soil, low soil nitrogen, drought) and post harvest loss (weevil) tolerance. Therefore it needs to more focu and emphasis for molecular breeding approaches and capacitate the breeders for this technology with the involvement of participatory breeding and variety selection through adoption and promotion enhancing the distribution and production of QPM varieties.

Author(s): Yaregal Damtie*

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