Reports in Endocrine Disorders: Open Access

About Reports in Endocrine Disorders: Open Access

Reports in Endocrine Disorders: Open Access is an open access journal designed for the wide promulgation of research in this field. New developments in methodology and treatments are important resources for the research community. The main goal of the journal is to act as a platform for publication, gaining knowledge, exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications worldwide. The journal scope embrace the knowledge in medical research of the topics related to diseases or disorders caused by the failure of endocrine system in arthropods.

Introduction: Endocrinology is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones. The endocrine system is the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system. The major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, and adrenal glands. The endocrine system involves a number of feedback mechanisms, so that often one hormone will control the action or release of another secondary hormone (such as thyroid hormone). If there is too much of the secondary hormone, it may provide negative feedback to the primary hormone, maintaining homeostasis. Endocrinology also involves study of the diseases of the endocrine system. These diseases may relate to too little or too much secretion and action of a hormone or problems with receiving the hormone.

Types of disease (disorders) Subdivided into three groups: 1. Endocrine gland hypo secretion (leading to hormone deficiency). 2. Endocrine gland hyper secretion (leading to hormone excess). 3. Tumours (benign or malignant) of endocrine glands. Endocrine disorders are often quite complex, involving a mixed picture of hyposecretion and hypersecretion because of the feedback mechanisms involved in the endocrine system.

Treatment of Endocrine Disorders In many cases, endocrine disorders may be symptomless or mild enough. Symptoms can arise from excess hormone production or a hormone deficiency. Endocrine disorders can be treated by correcting the hormone imbalance. In case of a noncancerous tumour surgery or radiation therapy can be used.

Conclusion: While most endocrine disorders are mild and slow to progress, certain endocrine disorders can lead to complications. In cases of Addison’s disease and hypothyroidism acute attacks can have serious complications.Complications of untreated or poorly controlled endocrine disorders can be serious, even life threatening. So proper treatment should be taken by the patients to overcome the adverse effect caused by different endocrine disorders.

Testicular cancer

 Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.One of the first signs of testicular cancer is often a lump or swelling in the testes.The three basic types of treatment are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Turner Syndrome

 Turner Syndrome is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.Often a short and webbed neck, low-set ears, low hairline at the back of the neck, short stature, and swollen hands and feet are seen at birth. Typically, they only develop menstrual periods and breasts with hormone treatment, and are unable to have children without reproductive technology. Heart defects, diabetes and low thyroid hormone occur more frequently.Vision and hearing problems may also occur more often. No cure for Turner syndrome is known. Treatment, however, may help with symptoms. Human growth hormone injections during childhood may increase adult height. Estrogen replacement therapy can promote development of the breasts and hips.

Hashimotos thyroiditis

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed. Over time the thyroid may enlarge forming a painless goiter. Some people eventually develop hypothyroidism with its accompanying weight gain, feeling tired, constipation, depression, and general pains.

Diagnosis is confirmed with blood tests for TSH, T4, and antithyroid antibodies.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is treated with thyroid hormone replacement agents such as levothyroxine, triiodothyronine or desiccated thyroid extract.
 

Myxedema

 Myxedema refers to deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the dermis, which results in swelling of the affected area. One manifestation of myxedema occurring in the lower limb is pretibial myxedema, a hallmark of Graves disease.Myxedema can also occur in the lower leg (pretibial myxedema) and behind the eyes (exophthalmos).

 
Myxoedema is responsible for the thickening of the tongue and the laryngeal and pharnygeal mucous membranes, which results in thick slurred speech and hoarseness, both of which are seen commonly in hypothyroidism.

Menopause

 Menopause is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children. It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries. 

 
Menopause is usually a natural change. It can occur earlier in those who smoke tobacco. Other causes include surgery that removes both ovaries or some types of chemotherapy. At the physiological level, menopause happens because of a decrease in the ovaries' production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
 
Specific treatment is not usually needed. Some symptoms, however, may be improved with treatment. With respect to hot flashes, avoiding smoking, caffeine, and alcohol is often recommended. Sleeping in a cool room and using a fan may help. The following medications may help: menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), clonidine, gabapentin, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility.

A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental disorder. Changes to diet and exercising are the main treatments.Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber.Medications may be taken, along with a suitable diet, to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption.

If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon or surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume or bowel length, leading to feeling full earlier or a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.

Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone. It is the most common reason for a broken bone among the elderly. Until a broken bone occurs there are typically no symptoms. Bones may weaken to such a degree that a break may occur with minor stress or spontaneously. Chronic pain and a decreased ability to carry out normal activities may occur following a broken bone. Bone loss increases after menopause due to lower levels of estrogen. Osteoporosis may also occur due to a number of diseases or treatments including alcoholism, anorexia, hyperthyroidism, kidney disease, and surgical removal of the ovaries. Certain medications increase the rate of bone loss including some antiseizure medications, chemotherapy, proton pump inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and glucocorticosteroids. Prevention of osteoporosis includes a proper diet during childhood and efforts to avoid medications that cause the condition. Efforts to prevent broken bones in those with osteoporosis include a good diet, exercise, and fall prevention. Biphosphonate medications are useful in those with previous broken bones due to osteoporosis.

Cretinism

 Cretinism is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth owing to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormone (congenital hypothyroidism) usually owing to maternal hypothyroidism.Cretinism is mostly due to diet deficient of iodine.Iodine deficiency results in the impairments in varying degrees of physical and mental development. It also causes gradual enlargement of the thyroid gland, referred to as a goitre.

 
Cretinism can be endemic, genetic, or sporadic. If untreated, it results in mild to severe impairment of both physical and mental growth and development.
 
Drug Thyroxine is the only remedy to cure Cretinism.

Cushing Syndrome

Cushing's syndrome is caused by either excessive cortisol-like medication such as prednisone or a tumor that either produces or results in the production of excessive cortisol by the adrenal glands.

Symptoms include rapid weight gain, particularly of the trunk and face with sparing of the limbs. Common signs include the growth of fat pads along the collarbone, on the back of the neck ("buffalo hump" or lipodystrophy), and on the face ("moon face"). Other symptoms include excess sweating, dilation of capillaries, thinning of the skin (which causes easy bruising and dryness, particularly the hands) and mucous membranes, purple or red striae (the weight gain in Cushing's syndrome stretches the skin, which is thin and weakened, causing it to hemorrhage) on the trunk, buttocks, arms, legs, or breasts, proximal muscle weakness (hips, shoulders), and hirsutism (facial male-pattern hair growth), baldness and/or extremely dry and brittle hair.
 

De Quervains Thyroiditis

De Quervain's Thyroiditis patients will experience a hyperthyroid period as the cellular lining of colloid spaces fails, allowing abundant colloid into the circulation, with neck pain and fever. Patients typically then become hypothyroid as the pituitary reduces TSH production and the inappropriately released colloid is depleted before resolving to euthyroid. The symptoms are those of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. In addition, patients may suffer from painful dysphagia.

 
Treatment is beta blockers, ASA, and NSAIDs.

Diabetes mellitus disorder

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
 
Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.
 
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure is important for people with the disease.
 
Diabetes can be managed with insulin injections or with medications.Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure.Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.

Follicular Thyroid Cancer

Follicular Thyroid Cancer more commonly in women over 50 years of age. Thyroglobulin (Tg) can be used as a tumor marker for well-differentiated follicular thyroid cancer. Follicular cells are the thyroid cells responsible for the production and secretion of thyroid hormones.

Treatment is usually surgical, followed by radioiodine.

Goiter

Goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland. Goitre cases are caused by iodine deficiency.

The most common cause for goitre is iodine deficiency.

If the thyroid gland is producing too much thyroid hormones (T3 ans T4), radioactive iodine is given to the patient to shrink the gland. If goitre is caused by iodine deficiency, small doses of iodide in the form of Lugol's Iodine or KI solution are given. If the goitre is associated with an underactive thyroid, thyroid supplements are used as treatment. In extreme cases, a partial or complete thyroidectomy is required.

Graves Disease

Graves' Disease is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.

The exact cause is unclear; however, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

The three treatment options are radioiodine therapy, medications, and thyroid surgery. Radioiodine therapy involves taking iodine-131 by mouth, which is then concentrated in the thyroid and destroys it over weeks to months. The resulting hypothyroidism is treated with synthetic thyroid hormone. Medications such as beta blockers may control some of the symptoms, and antithyroid medications such as methimazole may temporarily help people while other treatments are having effect. Surgery to remove the thyroid is another option.

Amenorrhea

Amenorrhea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
Amenorrhoea are seen, most commonly, during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding), the latter also forming the basis of a form of contraception known as the lactational amenorrhoea method.
Primary amenorrhoea (menstrual cycles never starting) may be caused by developmental problems, such as the congenital absence of the uterus or failure of the ovary to receive or maintain egg cells. Also, delay in pubertal development will lead to primary amenorrhoea
Secondary amenorrhoea (menstrual cycles ceasing) is often caused by hormonal disturbances from the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, from premature menopause or intrauterine scar formation.

Hypophysis

 Hypophysis is a disorder primarily affecting the pituitary gland.

Overproduction or underproduction of a pituitary hormone will affect the respective end-organ. For example, insufficient production (hyposecretion) of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the pituitary gland will cause hypothyroidism, while overproduction (hypersecretion) of TSH will cause hyperthyroidism.

Acromegaly

 Acromegaly is a disorder that results from excess growth hormone (GH) after the growth plates have closed. This is typically due to the pituitary gland producing too much growth hormone, production is due to a benign tumor, known as a pituitary adenoma.

 
Treatment options include surgery to remove the tumor, medications, and radiation therapy. Surgery is usually the preferred treatment and is most effective when the tumor is smaller. In those in whom surgery is not effective, medications of the somatostatin analogue or GH receptor antagonist type may be used. The effects of radiation therapy are more gradual than that of surgery or medication.

Adrenal Cancer

Adrenal Cancer is an aggressive cancer originating in the cortex (steroid hormone-producing tissue) of the adrenal gland. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor.

 
The only curative treatment is complete surgical excision of the tumor, which can be performed even in the case of invasion into large blood vessels, such as the renal vein or inferior vena cava. Radiation therapy and radiofrequency ablation may be used for palliation in patients who are not surgical candidates.
 
Chemotherapy regimens typically include the drug mitotane, an inhibitor of steroid synthesis which is toxic to cells of the adrenal cortex,as well as standard cytotoxic drugs.

Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

 Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer is a form of thyroid cancer which has a very poor prognosis due to its aggressive behavior and resistance to cancer treatments.

 
Anaplastic tumors have a high mitotic rate and lymphovascular invasion.They rapidly invade surrounding tissues (such as the trachea).
 
Anaplastic thyroid cancer is highly unlikely to be curable either by surgery or by any other treatment modality, and is in fact usually unresectable due to its high propensity for invading surrounding tissues.
 
Palliative treatment consists of radiation therapy usually combined with chemotherapy.However, with today's technology, new drugs, such as fosbretabulin (a type of combretastatin), bortezomib and TNF-Related Apoptosis Induced Ligand (TRAIL), are being introduced and trialed in clinical labs and human clinical studies.

Addisons Disease

Addison's Disease is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.Symptoms generally come on slowly and may include abdominal pain, weakness, and weight loss. Darkening of the skin in certain areas may also occur. Under certain circumstances, an adrenal crisis may occur with low blood pressure, vomiting, lower back pain, and loss of consciousness. An adrenal crisis can be triggered by stress, such as from an injury, surgery, or infection.

Treatment involves replacing the absent hormones.This involves taking a corticosteroid such as hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone.
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