Reports in Endocrine Disorders: Open Access is an open access journal designed for the wide promulgation of research in this field. New developments in methodology and treatments are important resources for the research community. The main goal of the journal is to act as a platform for publication, gaining knowledge, exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications worldwide. The journal scope embrace the knowledge in medical research of the topics related to diseases or disorders caused by the failure of endocrine system in arthropods.
Introduction: Endocrinology is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones. The endocrine system is the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system. The major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, and adrenal glands. The endocrine system involves a number of feedback mechanisms, so that often one hormone will control the action or release of another secondary hormone (such as thyroid hormone). If there is too much of the secondary hormone, it may provide negative feedback to the primary hormone, maintaining homeostasis. Endocrinology also involves study of the diseases of the endocrine system. These diseases may relate to too little or too much secretion and action of a hormone or problems with receiving the hormone.
Types of disease (disorders) Subdivided into three groups: 1. Endocrine gland hypo secretion (leading to hormone deficiency). 2. Endocrine gland hyper secretion (leading to hormone excess). 3. Tumours (benign or malignant) of endocrine glands. Endocrine disorders are often quite complex, involving a mixed picture of hyposecretion and hypersecretion because of the feedback mechanisms involved in the endocrine system.
Treatment of Endocrine Disorders In many cases, endocrine disorders may be symptomless or mild enough. Symptoms can arise from excess hormone production or a hormone deficiency. Endocrine disorders can be treated by correcting the hormone imbalance. In case of a noncancerous tumour surgery or radiation therapy can be used.
Conclusion: While most endocrine disorders are mild and slow to progress, certain endocrine disorders can lead to complications. In cases of Addison’s disease and hypothyroidism acute attacks can have serious complications.Complications of untreated or poorly controlled endocrine disorders can be serious, even life threatening. So proper treatment should be taken by the patients to overcome the adverse effect caused by different endocrine disorders.
Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.One of the first signs of testicular cancer is often a lump or swelling in the testes.The three basic types of treatment are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Turner Syndrome is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.Often a short and webbed neck, low-set ears, low hairline at the back of the neck, short stature, and swollen hands and feet are seen at birth. Typically, they only develop menstrual periods and breasts with hormone treatment, and are unable to have children without reproductive technology. Heart defects, diabetes and low thyroid hormone occur more frequently.Vision and hearing problems may also occur more often. No cure for Turner syndrome is known. Treatment, however, may help with symptoms. Human growth hormone injections during childhood may increase adult height. Estrogen replacement therapy can promote development of the breasts and hips.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed. Over time the thyroid may enlarge forming a painless goiter. Some people eventually develop hypothyroidism with its accompanying weight gain, feeling tired, constipation, depression, and general pains.
Diagnosis is confirmed with blood tests for TSH, T4, and antithyroid antibodies.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is treated with thyroid hormone replacement agents such as levothyroxine, triiodothyronine or desiccated thyroid extract.
Myxedema refers to deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the dermis, which results in swelling of the affected area. One manifestation of myxedema occurring in the lower limb is pretibial myxedema, a hallmark of Graves disease.Myxedema can also occur in the lower leg (pretibial myxedema) and behind the eyes (exophthalmos).
Menopause is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children. It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility.
A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental disorder. Changes to diet and exercising are the main treatments.Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber.Medications may be taken, along with a suitable diet, to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption.
If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon or surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume or bowel length, leading to feeling full earlier or a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.
Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone. It is the most common reason for a broken bone among the elderly. Until a broken bone occurs there are typically no symptoms. Bones may weaken to such a degree that a break may occur with minor stress or spontaneously. Chronic pain and a decreased ability to carry out normal activities may occur following a broken bone. Bone loss increases after menopause due to lower levels of estrogen. Osteoporosis may also occur due to a number of diseases or treatments including alcoholism, anorexia, hyperthyroidism, kidney disease, and surgical removal of the ovaries. Certain medications increase the rate of bone loss including some antiseizure medications, chemotherapy, proton pump inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and glucocorticosteroids. Prevention of osteoporosis includes a proper diet during childhood and efforts to avoid medications that cause the condition. Efforts to prevent broken bones in those with osteoporosis include a good diet, exercise, and fall prevention. Biphosphonate medications are useful in those with previous broken bones due to osteoporosis.
Cretinism is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth owing to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormone (congenital hypothyroidism) usually owing to maternal hypothyroidism.Cretinism is mostly due to diet deficient of iodine.Iodine deficiency results in the impairments in varying degrees of physical and mental development. It also causes gradual enlargement of the thyroid gland, referred to as a goitre.
Cushing's syndrome is caused by either excessive cortisol-like medication such as prednisone or a tumor that either produces or results in the production of excessive cortisol by the adrenal glands.
De Quervain's Thyroiditis patients will experience a hyperthyroid period as the cellular lining of colloid spaces fails, allowing abundant colloid into the circulation, with neck pain and fever. Patients typically then become hypothyroid as the pituitary reduces TSH production and the inappropriately released colloid is depleted before resolving to euthyroid. The symptoms are those of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. In addition, patients may suffer from painful dysphagia.
Follicular Thyroid Cancer more commonly in women over 50 years of age. Thyroglobulin (Tg) can be used as a tumor marker for well-differentiated follicular thyroid cancer. Follicular cells are the thyroid cells responsible for the production and secretion of thyroid hormones.
Treatment is usually surgical, followed by radioiodine.
Goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland. Goitre cases are caused by iodine deficiency.
The most common cause for goitre is iodine deficiency.
If the thyroid gland is producing too much thyroid hormones (T3 ans T4), radioactive iodine is given to the patient to shrink the gland. If goitre is caused by iodine deficiency, small doses of iodide in the form of Lugol's Iodine or KI solution are given. If the goitre is associated with an underactive thyroid, thyroid supplements are used as treatment. In extreme cases, a partial or complete thyroidectomy is required.
Graves' Disease is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.
The exact cause is unclear; however, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
The three treatment options are radioiodine therapy, medications, and thyroid surgery. Radioiodine therapy involves taking iodine-131 by mouth, which is then concentrated in the thyroid and destroys it over weeks to months. The resulting hypothyroidism is treated with synthetic thyroid hormone. Medications such as beta blockers may control some of the symptoms, and antithyroid medications such as methimazole may temporarily help people while other treatments are having effect. Surgery to remove the thyroid is another option.
Hypophysis is a disorder primarily affecting the pituitary gland.
Acromegaly is a disorder that results from excess growth hormone (GH) after the growth plates have closed. This is typically due to the pituitary gland producing too much growth hormone, production is due to a benign tumor, known as a pituitary adenoma.
Adrenal Cancer is an aggressive cancer originating in the cortex (steroid hormone-producing tissue) of the adrenal gland. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor.
Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer is a form of thyroid cancer which has a very poor prognosis due to its aggressive behavior and resistance to cancer treatments.
Addison's Disease is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.Symptoms generally come on slowly and may include abdominal pain, weakness, and weight loss. Darkening of the skin in certain areas may also occur. Under certain circumstances, an adrenal crisis may occur with low blood pressure, vomiting, lower back pain, and loss of consciousness. An adrenal crisis can be triggered by stress, such as from an injury, surgery, or infection.
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