Clinical pharmacology is the science of drugs and their clinical use. Clinical pharmacology connects the gap between medical practice and laboratory science. The main objective is to promote the safety of prescription, maximize the drug effects and minimize the side effects. It is important that there be an association with pharmacists skilled in areas of drug information.
Current Clinical Pharmacology focuses on latest advances in clinical pharmacology.
Pharmacokinetics describes how the body affects a specific xenobiotic/chemical after administration through the mechanisms of absorption and distribution, as well as the metabolic changes of the substance in the body (e.g. by metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450 or glucuronosyltransferase enzymes), and the effects and routes of excretion of the metabolites of the drug.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs). The effects can include those manifested within animals (including humans), microorganisms, or combinations of organisms (for example, infection). Pharmacodynamics is the study of how a drug affects an organism.
Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior. There are two main branches of neuropharmacology: behavioral and molecular. Behavioral neuropharmacology focuses on the study of how drugs affect human behavior (neuro psychopharmacology), including the study of how drug dependence and addiction affect the human brain. Molecular neuropharmacology involves the study of neurons and their neurochemical interactions, with the overall goal of developing drugs that have beneficial effects on neurological function.
It is a branch of pharmacology that deals entry of chemicals or drugs into the environment after elimination from humans and animals as post-therapy.
Environmental problems we face today:
1. Climate change 2. Biodiversity loss 3. Water scarcity and 4. The health impacts of pollution.
Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs)
Diverse group of chemicals including, but not limited to, prescription and over-the-counter human drugs, veterinary drugs, diagnostic agents, nutritional supplements, and other consumer products.
• Harmful effect on aquatic organism
• Antidepressants like fluoxetine could trigger spawning in some shellfish
• Ppm and sub-ppm levels of various drugs (NSAIDS, glucocorticoids, anti-fibrotic) affect collagen metabolism in teleost fish, leading to defective/blocked fin regeneration.
Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics is the study of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects. The term pharmacogenetics is often used interchangeably with the term pharmacogenomics which also investigates the role of acquired and inherited genetic differences in relation to drug response and drug behavior through a systematic examination of genes, gene products, and inter- and intra-individual variation in gene expression and function.
The drugs known as targeted therapy help stop cancer from growing and spreading. They work by targeting specific genes or proteins. These genes and proteins are found in cancer cells or in cells related to cancer growth, like blood vessel cells. Doctors often use targeted therapy with chemotherapy and other treatments. Knowing how cancer cells develop helps understand how targeted therapy works. Cells make up every tissue in your body. There are many different cell types, such as blood cells, brain cells, and skin cells. Each type has a specific function. Cancer begins when specific genes in healthy cells change. Scientists call the change a mutation. Genes tell cells how to make proteins that keep the cell working. If the genes change, these proteins change, too. This makes cells divide abnormally or live too long. When this happens, the cells grow out of control. The out-of-control cells form a tumor.
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication. ADRs may occur following a single dose or prolonged administration of a drug or result from the combination of two or more drugs. An ADR is a special type of ADE in which a causative relationship can be shown.
An adverse drug reaction is an injury caused by taking a medication. ADRs may occur following a single dose or prolonged administration of a drug or result from the combination of two or more drugs. An ADR is a special type of ADE in which a causative relationship can be shown.
Biological Chemistry or Biochemistry is the branch of science that explores the chemical processes within and related to living organisms. It is a laboratory based science that brings together biology and chemistry. By using chemical knowledge and techniques, biochemists can understand and solve biological problems.
Biological Chemistry focuses on processes happening at a molecular level. It focuses on what’s happening inside our cells, studying components like proteins, lipids and organelles. It also looks at how cells communicate with each other, for example during growth or fighting illness. Biochemists need to understand how the structure of a molecule relates to its function, allowing them to predict how molecules will interact.
What do Biochemistry do?
Provide new ideas and experiments to understand how life works.
Support our understanding of health and disease.
Contribute innovative information to the technology revolution.
Work alongside chemists, physicists, healthcare professionals, policy makers, engineers and many more professionals.
Cell and developmental biology explains the structure, organization of the organelles they contain, their physiological properties, metabolic processes, Signaling pathways, life cycle and interactions with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
The study of the cell is done on a molecular level; however, most of the processes within the cell are made up of a mixture of small organic molecules, inorganic ions, hormones, and water. Approximately 75-85% of the cell's volume is due to water making it an indispensable solvent because of its polarity and structure. These molecules within the cell, which operate as substrates, provide a suitable environment for the cell to carry out metabolic reactions and signaling.
A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition. The term is also occasionally used to refer to a substance whose detection indicates the presence of a living organism. In medicine, a biomarker can be a traceable substance that is introduced into an organism as a means to examine organ function or other aspects of health. For example, rubidium chloride is used as a radioactive isotope to evaluate perfusion of heart muscle. It can also be a substance whose detection indicates a particular disease state, for example, the presence of an antibody may indicate an infection.
More specifically, a biomarker indicates a change in expression or state of a protein that correlates with the risk or progression of a disease, or with the susceptibility of the disease to a given treatment.
Journal of Pharmacological Reviews and Reports is a peer-reviewed, open access publication that provides a bird’s eye view of various aspects of pharmacology by prominently publishing the latest reports in this field.
This scholarly journal thus provides a comprehensive overview of the developments by including clinical, toxic, biochemical, technological, genetics, neurological, and behavioral dynamics within the pharmacology. The journal thus caters to the interests of clinical practitioners, lab technicians, medical practitioners, pharmacists, diagnostic centers, academicians and students that are keen in exploring the pharmacological innovations to address various physical, mental and behavioral issues.
Journal of Pharmacological Reviews and Reports covers a wide range of topics within this field, including Biochemical and cellular pharmacology, Neuropharmacology, renal pharmacology, clinical pharmacology and toxicology, drug metabolism and disposition, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics, behavioral brain research, cellular and molecular neuroscience, cell biology and toxicology, biochemistry, Adverse Drug Reactions, biomarkers, Cardiovascular pharmacology, Dental pharmacology, Environmental pharmacology, Pharmacogenetics, Targeted cancer therapy, Pharmacology of aging.
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