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Prevalence of Hexavalent Chromium (VI) Induced Alterations in Fish: A Review

Chromium is considered as a standout amongst the most well-known universal toxins in the aquatic condition, however the pure metallic form is absent normally. There are three oxidation states on the off chance that of Chromium viz., Cr (II), Cr (III), Cr (VI). Among which Cr (II) is generally unsteady. Cr (III) and Cr (VI) are the steady oxidation state of Chromium in the earth. Being one of the regularly utilized metals Chromium and its particulates enter the sea-going medium through effluents released from various enterprises like materials, tanneries, electroplating workshops, mineral mining, coloring, printing-photographic and therapeutic industries. Among these, hexavalent chromium is considered as the most poisonous form since it promptly passes cell layers and afterward reduced to trivalent form. This trivalent chromium joins with a few macromolecules including hereditary material inside the cytosol, and is at last uncovered the poisonous and mutagenic adjustments due of chromium lethality. Chromium is taken up either through gastrointestinal tract or respiratory tract. The amount fluctuates relying on the medium and the type of chromium. The aim of this review paper is to give a future rule for mainstream researchers and open authorities associated with health hazard evaluation and administration ensuring a superior ecological condition for human health.

Author(s): Hareem Sajjad and Neelam Arif

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