COPD is a common, costly, and preventable disease that has implications for global health. It is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, exceeded only by heart attacks, cancers, and stroke. This can result from several types of anatomical lesions, including loss of lung elastic recoil and fibrosis and narrowing of small airways. Inflammation, edema, and secretions also contribute variably to airflow limitation. Occupational exposure to dusts and chemicals, asthma, age, tobacco smoke and genetic factors likely play a major role and which also account for much of the heterogeneity susceptibility to smoke and other factors. Many factors may play a role, but to date, only α-1 protease inhibitor deficiency has been unambiguously identified. Exposures other than cigarette smoke can also contribute to the development of COPD. Spirometry is recommended in COPD guidelines for the accurate diagnosis of this disease. Wheezing, productive cough, barrel chest and shortness of breath are some of the hallmark signs of COPD. Although COPD cannot be cured but it can be managed my reducing symptoms and improving overall health, WHO and NICE have guidelines regarding COPD which outline management via pharmacotherapy for approaching COPD. The advances in understanding the pathogenesis of COPD have identified the provided therapy for management of this disease, if these guidelines are accurately followed, reduction in further complications or mortality from this ailment can be achieved.
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