Hippocampal Neurons

The hippocampus may be a seahorse-shaped region of the brain that's liable for learning, emotions, and memory. Like other regions of the brain, it contains many sorts of neurons that send information to every other by releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters across junctions referred to as synapses. The hippocampal formation may be a phylogenetically primitive cortical complex located within the lobe of humans and within the caudal portion of rodent forebrain. This structure is important for the formation of latest declarative and episodic memories, and it also features a well-characterized role in spatial navigation. This chapter introduces the most neuronal types (principal cells and interneurons) of the hippocampal formation (hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and subiculum) and places those cells during a neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and overall functional context. The principal neurons of the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and closely associated entorhinal cortex form a comparatively simple cross-sectional trisynaptic neurocircuit. Study of this functional neurocircuit led to the invention of long-term potentiation, and continues to drive new understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity. Given the extensive study of stress effects on hippocampal function and neuronal plasticity, this detailed overview should be a useful resource to the reader.

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