Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a condition that causes narrowing (stenosis) and enlargement (aneurysm) of the medium-sized arteries in human body. The areas of narrowing and bulging occur next to each other and can cause the artery to narrow so much that organs that receive blood from the artery are damaged. Fibromuscular dysplasia appears most commonly in the arteries leading to the kidneys.
Fibromuscular dysplasia can cause a number of complications, such as high blood pressure or tears of the artery (dissection), if left untreated. Fibromuscular dysplasia can also affect the arteries leading to your brain, abdomen, arms and legs. While there isn′t a cure for fibromuscular dysplasia, it can be treated effectively.
Signs and symptoms
Most patients with craniocervical FMD are asymptomatic. No particular symptoms are pathognomonic for FMD. Any history compatible with a stroke in younger individuals may indicate underlying FMD. The family history should include information about relatives who have had vascular events at a young age.
In symptomatic patients, manifestations of FMD may include the following:
• Nonspecific problems, such as headache, light-headedness, vertigo, and tinnitus
• Neck pain or carotidynia
• History of transient or permanent neurologic deficits of the face or extremities (eg, weakness or numbness)
• Visual changes or speech difficulties
• Symptoms compatible with a sentinel bleed (eg, a sudden explosive headache followed later by neck stiffness): May indicate an aneurysm that may be associated with FMD
• Symptoms suggestive of noncraniocervical FMD, such as hypertension (renal involvement), abdominal pains or a history of ischemic bowel (mesenteric or visceral artery involvement), or intermittent leg claudication (extremity artery involvement)
Related Journals of Fibromuscular Dysplasia
Journal of Vascular Medicine & Surgery, Cardiovascular Pathology: Open Access, International Journal of Cardiovascular Research Hybrid, Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis, Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access, Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, European Journal of Vascular and EndoVascular Surgery, Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine