Very safe, can be used to provide peri- and postoperative analgesia, can be sole anesthetic or can be combined with general anesthesia. Anesthesia and analgesia below the umbilicus – the very young a caudal block may be adequate to carry out urgent procedures such as reduction of incarcerated hernias -superficial operations such as skin grafting, perineal procedures, and lower limb surgery. GA may be required in addition Pain relief will extend into the post operative period. The duration of the block can been prolonged by the addition of an opiate (pethidine 0.5 mg/kg) to the local anaesthetic. b. Obstetric analgesia for the 2nd stage or instrumental deliveries.