Any disease transmitted by sexual contact; caused by microorganisms that survive on the skin or mucus membranes of the genital area; or transmitted via semen, vaginal secretions, or blood during intercourse. Because the genital areas provide a moist, warm environment that is especially conducive to the proliferation of bacteria, viruses, and yeasts, a great many diseases can be transmitted this way. They include AIDS, Chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, syphilis, and some forms of hepatitis. Also known as a morbus venereus or venereal disease.
Infectious diseases are transmitted from person to person by direct or indirect contact. Certain types of viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi can all cause infectious disease. Malaria, measles, and respiratory illnesses are examples of infectious diseases.
Infectious diseases are often spread through direct contact. Types of direct contact include:
1. Person-to-person contact
Infectious diseases are commonly transmitted through direct person-to-person contact. Transmission occurs when an infected person touches or exchanges body fluids with someone else. This can happen before an infected person is aware of the illness. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be transmitted this way.
Pregnant women can also transmit infectious diseases to their unborn children via the placenta. Some STDs, including gonorrhea, can be passed from mother to baby during childbirth.
2. Droplet spread
The spray of droplets during coughing and sneezing can spread an infectious disease. You can even infect another person through droplets created when you speak. Since droplets fall to the ground within a few feet, this type of transmission requires close proximity.
Infectious diseases can also be spread indirectly through the air and other mechanisms. For example:
1. Airborne transmission
Some infectious agents can travel long distances and remain suspended in the air for an extended period of time. You can catch a disease like measles by entering a room after someone with measles has departed.
2. Contaminated objects
Some organisms can live on objects for a short time. If you touch an object, such as a doorknob, soon after an infected person, you might be exposed to infection. Transmission occurs when you touch your mouth, nose, or eyes before thoroughly washing your hands.
Germs can also be spread through contaminated blood products and medical supplies.
3. Food and drinking water
Infectious diseases can be transmitted via contaminated food and water. E. coli is often transmitted through improperly handled produce or undercooked meat. Improperly canned foods can create an environment ripe for Clostridium botulinum, which can lead to botulism.
4. Animal-to-person contact
Some infectious diseases can be transmitted from an animal to a person. This can happen when an infected animal bites or scratches you or when you handle animal waste. The Toxoplasma gondii parasite can be found in cat feces. Pregnant women and people with compromised immune systems should take extra care (disposable gloves and good hand washing) when changing cat litter, or avoid it altogether.
5. Animal reservoirs
Animal-to-animal disease transmission can sometimes transfer to humans. Zoonosis occurs when diseases are transferred from animals to people. Zoonotic diseases include:
anthrax (from sheep) , rabies (from rodents and other mammals),West Nile virus (from birds),plague (from rodents)
6. Insect bites (vector-borne disease)
Some zoonotic infectious agents are transmitted by insects, especially those that suck blood. These include mosquitos, fleas, and ticks. The insects become infected when they feed on infected hosts, such as birds, animals, and humans. The disease is then transmitted when the insect bites a new host. Malaria, West Nile virus, and Lyme disease are all spread this way.
7. Environmental reservoirs
Soil, water, and vegetation containing infectious organisms can also be transferred to people. Hookworm, for example, is transmitted through contaminated soil. Legionnaires’ disease is an example of a disease that can be spread by water that supplies cooling towers and evaporative condensers.
Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis. Although it is rare, people can get sick with anthrax if they come in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection.This may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash. Recovery generally takes two to seven days. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.
Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Many people have no symptoms. Men may have burning with urination, discharge from the penis, or testicular pain. Women may have burning with urination, vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding between periods, or pelvic pain. Complications in women include pelvic inflammatory disease and in men include inflammation of the epididymis.If untreated gonorrhea can occasionally spread to affect joints or heart valves.
Hepatitis is a group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the liver. Some people have no symptoms whereas others develop yellow discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes, poor appetite, vomiting, feel tired, abdominal pain, or diarrhea.Hepatitis may be a temporary or long term condition. Acute hepatitis can sometimes resolve on its own, progress to chronic hepatitis, or rarely result in acute liver failure.Over time the chronic form may progress to scarring of the liver, liver failure, or liver cancer
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, fatigue, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death.Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: a high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. The cough, however, may last for more than two weeks. In children, there may be nausea and vomiting, but these are not common in adults. Nausea and vomiting occur more commonly in the unrelated infection gastroenteritis, which is sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu".Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days.Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet.The dehydration may result in the skin turning bluish. Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure
The study of the molecular and cellular components that comprise the immune system, including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology. The immune system has been divided into a more primitive innate immune system and, in vertebrates, an acquired or adaptive immune system
Immunology is a branch of biomedical science which deals with an organism’s response towards an invading environmental factor. This process involves a complex interplay of invading particle and defence system of the host organism along with successive cascading molecular mechanism to eliminate the invading agent
Cancer immunology is a branch of immunology that studies interactions between the immune system and cancer cells (also called tumors or malignancies). It is a field of research that aims to discover cancer immunotherapies to treat and retard progression of the disease
Immunotherapy is a treatment procedure which enhances or supress the body’s immune system to fight against a disease. Immunotherapies which enhance the immune response are called as activation immunotherapies and those which reduce or suppress the immune response are called as suppression immunotherapies. Immunotherapy is of many types but the major immunotherapies for cancer include Monoclonal antibodies, Cancer vaccines and Non-specific immunotherapies.
Immunoproteomics identifies and measures the antigenic peptides or proteins. This techniques used are gel based, array based, mass spectrometry, DNA based, or in silico approaches. Immunoproteomics helps in understanding disease and disease progression, vaccine, and biomarkers.
Immunopharmacology is defined as a branch of pharmacology concerned with the application of immunological techniques and theory to the study of the effects of drugs especially on the immune system
Molecular Immunology deals with immunological response at the molecular, cellular and functional levels of innate and acquired immunity. It includes immune regulation, cell signaling and Immunochemistry.
It is the branch that explores the relationship between the immune system and genetics. The term immunogenetics is based on two words immunology and genetics. Immunology deals with the biological and biochemical basis for the body's defense against germs such as bacteria, virus and mycosis
Vaccination can be defined as the process of administration of an antigenic material (vaccine) into a living mechanism. The clinical effect desired is to cause stimulation of an individual's immune system in order to develop an adaptive immunity against the pathogen constituting the vaccine. Vaccination is the most effective method of prevention for infectious diseases. Vaccination Journal publishing quality manuscript receiving throughout the globe.
Journal of Transmitted Diseases and Immunity is an International Open Access and peer reviewed publication that discusses the current research and advancements in Transmitted Diseases and Immunity. The journal covers several key aspects of Transmitted Diseases by including studies on Anthrax, Brucellosis, Botulism, Dengue, Diphtheria, Chlamydia. Gonorrhea and Genital Herpes. The journal also focuses on topics like Hepatitis, Malaria, Influenza, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Leprosy, HIV/AIDS, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Syphilis. Bacterial Vaginosis, Trichomoniasis, Pneumococcal Disease, Tuberculosis, Yellow Fever, and Cholera.
The Journal encourages advancements in the areas not limited to the one mentioned above by including research on cellular and molecular immunology, clinical immunology, allergy, immunochemistry, immunogenetics, immune signaling, immune development, imaging, mathematical modeling, autoimmunity, transplantation immunology, and cancer immunology.
The Journal also includes research on Immunodeficiency, Transplant rejection, Immunotherapy, Microbiological culture, mechanisms of molecular pathogenesis, virulence factors, cellular microbiology, experimental models of infection, host resistance or susceptibility, and the generation of innate and adaptive immune responses.
The Journal encourages original research in the form of research articles, reviews, commentaries, case studies and letters to the editors. The editorial manager system facilitates a user friendly article submission, review and publication. Manuscripts that are thoroughly peer reviewed would ensure the best standards in the industry.
Author(s): Temba V, Lyaruu LJ, Mahande AM and Kweka EJ
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