Toxicity of nanomaterials because of quantum size effects and large surface area to volume ratio.The smaller they are, the greater their surface area to volume ratio and the higher their chemical reactivity and biological activity. The greater chemical reactivity of nanomaterials can result in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including free radicals. ROS production has been found in a diverse range of nanomaterials including carbon fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and nanoparticle metal oxides. ROS and free radical production is one of the primary mechanisms of nanoparticle toxicity; it may result in oxidative stress, inflammation, and consequent damage to proteins, membranes and DNA.
Related Journals: Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanosciences: Current Research,Nano Research and Applications,Journal of Nanomaterials & Molecular Nanotechnology.