Antibodies are immune system-related proteins called immunoglobulins. Antibodies are produced in response to invasion by foreign molecules in the body. Antibodies exist as one or more copies of a Y-shaped unit, composed of four polypeptide chains. Each Y contains two identical copies of a heavy chain, and two identical copies of a light chain, which are different in their sequence and length. The top of the Y shape contains the variable region, which binds tightly and specifically to an epitope on the antigen.
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