Journal of Lung is a peer reviewd, open access journal dedicated for publishing and disseminating high-quality articles on all aspects of lung research. This scientific Journal provides essiential and novel information to readers & scholars in field. Its main aim is the development of scientific community internationally by publishing world class articles related to lung's functions, disorders, diagnosis and treatment. Original research articles, early reports, review articles, editorials and correspondence covering the prevention, epidemiology and etiology, basic biology, pathology, clinical assessment of lung are appropriate. Articles which are published in Journal of Lung support journal’s goals to associate clinical physicians with the researchers.
Journal also consider manuscripts on all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of pulmonary and associated disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology including Lungs Biology, Lungs Function, Lung Pathology, Lymphatics of Lung, Asthma, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Alveolar abnormalities, bronchitis, Cystic fibrosis, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Pulmonary edema, Lung cancer, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Occupational Lung Diseases,Interstitial lung disease, Pulmonary Hypertension, Respiratory Infections, Lung Transplantation.
You may submit your papers online at www.editorialmanager.com/insightjournals/ (or) send as an e-mail attachment to editorial office at [email protected]
Lung is the sponge-like, perforated, elastic vascular organ, which is situated inside of the chest cavity covering most of the lower respiratory tracts. The most crucial task a lung performs is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. In doing so, lung absorbs oxygen and mixes with blood while, removes carbon dioxide outside of the body. From the lungs, oxygenate blood reaching all the cells and tissues of the body. Each lung is divided into lobes. The right lung has three, whereas the left lung has only two allowing room to accommodate the heart. When we breathe in, air flows through the nose or mouth down the throat and through the voice box down to the windpipe (trachea). Then the air enters the two main large airways (the right and left bronchial tubes). These large airways branch into smaller and smaller airways (bronchioles). Wrapped around the airways are muscles in a crisscross manner to each other. These are involuntary muscles and their exact purpose is yet to be known. Air continues through these small airways till it finally reaches the tiny balloon-like air sacs (alveoli). It is through these air sacs that the oxygen is taken into the blood.
Lungs are basically a sack of elastic tissue located below the rib cage and above the diaphragm. They are an important part of the respiratory system and assist in excretory waste management in the body. Breathing is one important part of the respiration which provides our bodies with a continuous supply of oxygen. Oxygen is the fuel of life which keeps us all alive. Oxygen enters our lungs as part of the air that we breathe. It goes to the blood vessels deep into our lungs and then spread towards all parts of our body. As our body uses oxygen, it makes a waste product called carbon dioxide. We get rid of carbon dioxide when we breathe out.
Pathological examination of lung is the key element in the confirmatory diagnosis of a variety of malignant and non-malignant respiratory disorders, which directs the treatment paradigm accordingly. Research has contributed to important advances in the pathological diagnosis of these respiratory disorders. Complete overview of diagnostic procedures and pathological examination data helped the clinician in the decision-making process. Various published monographs have covered the pathology of neoplastic lung diseases, lung infections, obstructive and interstitial lung diseases, and pulmonary manifestations of systemic diseases.
Lymphatics of Lung
The lymphatic circulation is regarded as one among the vital components in lung biology in terms of health and disease. The lymphatic circulation received only little attention in pulmonary research category. Fluid homeostasis and host defense are reported to play critical roles for proper lung function. The main function of lymphatic circulations is to drain fluid from the tissues and then return it to the vascular circulatory system. The lymphatic circulation has a close association with the immune system of the body, as the lymphocytes and dendritic cells move through the lymphatic system to the lymphoid organs. The lymphatic system mainly comprises of a vasculature consisting of thin-walled capillaries as well as larger vessels by a layer of endothelial cells. Lymphatics structures are distinguished from those of the arterial and venous circulations by the absence of pericytes.
Asthma is a chronic disease that affects the airways, which carry air in and out of lungs. In case of asthma, the inside walls of airway passage becomes sore and swollen. That makes them very sensitive, and they may react strongly to things that you are allergic to or find irritating. When your airways react, they get narrower and your lungs get less air. Asthma affects people of all ages, but it most often starts during childhood. In the United States, more than 25 million people are known to have asthma. About 7 million of these people are children.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an umbrella term usually used to describe progressive lung diseases like emphysema, chronic bronchitis, refractory (non-reversible) asthma, and also some forms of bronchiectasis. It is regarded as progressive because the disease gets worse over time, characterized by increase in breathlessness. The major causes of COPD could be categorized as long-term exposure to substances that irritate and damage the lungs which usually are cigarette smoke. Also air pollution, chemical fumes, or dust could be a reason. Cigarette smoking has always been the leading cause of COPD. Most people, who have COPD do smoke or used to smoke. However, 25 percent of people with COPD never smoked. Form them it could be long-term exposure to other lung irritants like air pollution, chemical fumes, or dusts.
Alveolar abnormalities as the name suggest are changes in the tiny air sacs in the lungs called the alveoli. They are the pathways that allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood. These being very thin let oxygen move from the lungs to the blood vessels and for carbon dioxide to be removed from the blood vessels to the lungs. When these tiny sacs collapse, fuse together, or develop thickened linings (membranes), makes it difficult for oxygen to enter the blood.
Bronchitis is termed to be an inflammation of the bronchial tubes-the airways that carry air to the lungs. The major concerned cause would be cough that often brings up mucus. Accompanied cause can also be shortness of breath, wheezing, a low fever, and chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most often, the viruses that cause a cold or the flu are also responsible to cause bronchitis. Sometimes, even bacteria are too blamed. But in both cases, as the body fights off the germs, and the bronchial tubes swell and make more mucus. Nearly an estimated of 5 percent bronchitis cases lead to pneumonia.
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs, digestive system and other organs in the body. CF affects the cells in patient’s body that makes excess mucus, and digestive fluids. Normally, these are very sweat thin and slippery to keep systems in the body running smoothly but, in case of CF, they become thick and glue-like. This blocks tubes and ducts throughout your body. Over time, mucus builds up inside airways. This makes breathing a struggle. The mucus traps germs and leads to infections. It can also cause severe lung damage like cysts (fluid-filled sacs) and fibrosis (scar tissue). It’s caused by a mutation (change) in a single gene called the ‘Cystic Fibrosis Trans-membrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR.)’. This controls the flow of salt and fluids in and out of cells. If the CFTR gene doesn’t work like it should, sticky mucus builds up throughout the body.
Pneumonia is commonly a complication of a respiratory infection, especially caused by flu but there are more than 30 different causes of the illness due to this. Older adults, children and people with chronic disease, including COPD and asthma are supposed to be at a high risk for pneumonia. It causes inflammation in the air sacs in the lungs, which are called alveoli, which gets filled with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe. Pneumonia usually gets affected after having a cold or the flu. These illnesses make it hard for the lungs to fight infection, so it is easier to get pneumonia. Having a long-term or chronic disease like asthma, heart disease, cancer, or diabetes are most likely to be affected by pneumonia.
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease usually affects the lungs but, can also effect or damage the other parts of the body. Compared with other diseases caused due to a single infectious agent, tuberculosis is known to be the second biggest killer globally. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB usually spreads through the air when a person with TB of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, or talks. More likely TB affects people with a weaker immune system. Just a few years ago TB was believed to be an old disease considered not as a threat in younger human beings but, reports on the early onset of TB has changed the scenario the older concept about TB. Such cases have been reported with coexistence of drug resistance and HIV, which opens up a new challenge in TB therapeutics.
Pulmonary edema is a condition caused by excess fluid stack up in the lungs. This fluid aggregates in the numerous air sacs in the lungs, making it hard and difficult to breathe. In most cases, heart problems could be the leading cause for pulmonary edema but, fluid accumulation could be due several other reasons including pneumonia, exposure to certain toxins and medications, trauma to the chest wall, and exercising or living at high elevations.
Pulmonary edema usually develops suddenly (acute pulmonary edema) is a medical emergency requiring immediate care. Treatment for pulmonary edema varies depending on the cause but generally includes supplemental oxygen and medications.
Lung cancer and smoking are the two corners of a see saw, which go hand in hand. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke can also be a cause for pulmonary carcinoma. There are two types of lung cancer namely, small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). The stage of lung cancer is determined by the severity to which the cancer has spread in the body. As lung cancer stage advances, symptoms like coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, bloody mucus, becomes more expressive. The more cigarettes smoked per day and the earlier age to start smoking, the greater the risk of lung cancer. High levels of pollution, radiation and asbestos exposure may also increase risk. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a condition, in which fluid leaks into the lungs thus blocking oxygen from reaching organs. Fluid leaks from small blood vessels and piles up in the tiny air sacs in the lungs thus unable it to fill up with enough air. Infants most commonly have the tendency to have respiratory distress syndrome. Physicians are still trying to find out this condition and possible causal factors. Most people, who get ARDS are found to be admitted in the hospital coincide with other reasons, usually an injury or illness. It is a serious, sometimes life-threatening, and having the potency to become worse in less time. However, it is generally treatable and most people have been reported to recovered from it. Fast diagnosis and treatment are the most important advise physicians often suggest for the pathology.
Occupational Lung Diseases
Occupational Lung Diseases (OLD) are most commonly caused due to the exposure to dust in the workplace associated with a variety of pulmonary and systemic illnesses. The term pneumoconiosis is derived from Greek and simply means ‘dusty lungs’. However, in addition to these other factors usually lifestyle, occupational exposures could also contribute to the development or worsening of common respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and lung cancer. In most cases, these are man-made cause diseases, resulting from inorganic dust exposure during mining, processing, or manufacturing.
Interstitial lung disease
Interstitial lung disease is a general category on lungs illness that includes many different types of pathophysiology of lung. It could be characterized by the thickening of the supporting tissues between the air sacs of the lungs as the common factor. Interstitium are thin layer of tissue that normally appears as a fine lace on X-rays and imaging studies. It provides support to the lungs' microscopic air sacs in the form of tiny blood vessels traveling through the interstitium allows the gas exchange between blood and the air in the lungs.
Interstitial lung disease is more common in people with autoimmune disease, including lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma. Known to cause interstitial pneumonias are mostly by Bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Also regular exposures to inhaled irritants as a part of work or during hobbies can also be a reason for interstitial lung disease.
Pulmonary Hypertension expressed in a simple terms as high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries or pulmonary capillaries when they are blocked, narrowed or destroyed. This makes harder for blood to flow through lungs, and raises pressure within pulmonary arteries. This also has an effect on the right side of the heart because as the pressure builds, heart's lower right chamber (right ventricle) works harder to pump blood through the lungs, eventually causing our heart muscle to weaken and fail. Occurrence of Pulmonary Hypertension doesn’t have any barrier of ages, races, and ethnic backgrounds although it is much more common in young adults and is approximately twice as common in women as in men. The signs and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension in its early stages might not be noticeable for months or even years. Some noticeable symptoms are usually shortness of breath with everyday activities, such as climbing stairs. Fatigue, dizziness, and fainting spells also can be symptoms.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is an infection that may interfere with normal breathing of a person. It can affect just your upper respiratory system, which starts at your sinuses and ends at your vocal chords. Lower respiratory system are also at a high risk of Infection, starting at the vocal chords and ends at the lungs. In simple words RTI’s are any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs. They're usually caused by viruses, but bacteria can also be the cause. The common cold is the most widespread RTI. This infection is particularly dangerous for children, older adults, and people with immune system disorders.
Lung transplantation is an accepted modality of treatment at the advanced stage lung disease or failing lung with a healthy lung, usually from a deceased donor. A lung transplant is reserved for people, who have been tried on other medications or treatments, but their conditions haven't sufficiently improved. Since the early 1990s, more than 25,000 lung transplants have been performed at centres around the world. Depending on the medical condition, a lung transplant may involve replacing one of the lungs or both of them. At times, the lungs may be transplanted along with the donor heart. While, a lung transplant is a major operation that can involve many complications, it can improve your health and quality of life.