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Abstract

The Ethno-botanic Significance and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Plant Extracts used in Eritrea

The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of the traditionally used medicinal plants, Plumbago zeylanica and Buddleja polystachya were determined against different human pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans). Plumbago zeylanica’s root part and Buddleja polystachya’s leaf part were extracted by soxhlet extraction method using six solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol, ethanol and distilled water). The antimicrobial activity of these plants were screened primarily at 100mg/ml and 500mg/ml for P.zeylanica and B.polystachya respectively using agar disk diffusion and broth dilution methods. Results from both methods were found to be coherent which deciphered that activities generally decreased with increasing polarity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was further determined for the non-polar fractions (petroleum ether and chloroform) which showed antimicrobial activity against the bacterial and fungal strains during screening using the broth dilution method. Petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of P.zeylanica were found relatively equal in inhibiting the growth (turbidity) of bacterial and fungal organisms, with S.aureus (ATCC 25923) being highly susceptible to concentration as low as 3.125mg/ml of both extracts. While B.polystachya’s non-polar fractions were found to be active to a bit higher concentration of 15.625 mg/ml, with S.aureus being again more susceptible from the rest of the test organisms. Furthermore, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was performed to assist in tracking the unknown phyto-constituents of the plants.


Author(s): Nuredin Mohamedkassm, Nahom Fessehaye, Daniel Mebrahtu, Kudus Teaghes, Yohana Fessehaye, Atul Kaushik, Ghebrehiwet Medhanie

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