Objective: To screen the bioactive compound of Bixa orellana L. seed extract and evaluating the antioxidant potential, reducing power, DNA protection ability and anti-proliferative activity against Hep3B cancer cell line. Methods: Bixa orellana L. seed extracts of different solvents i.e. petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CE), acetone (AE), methanol (ME) and water (WE) extract were screened for the phytobioactive compounds. Rapid free radical antioxidant screening and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay were done by DPPH Dot blot method and by using safranin respectively. Reducing power assay was done by ferric chloride method. DNA damage protective ability was evaluated by Fenton reagent method and anti-proliferative ability against Hep3B cells were carried out by MTT (Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide) assay.
Results: The screening of bioactive compound shows the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phytosterols, diterpenes, carotenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. All extracts scavenged the DPPH free radicals indicated by discoloration of purple color background to yellow-white spot. All extract showed the reducing power ability in a dose dependent manner by reducing the ferric chloride. Hydroxyl radical scavenging and DNA protection ability was maximum for PE extract.PE extract shows the anti-proliferative activity against Hep3B cell line and IC50 values were found to be 78.11 μg/ml and 70.86μg/ml for 24 and 48h respectively.
Conclusions: These results suggest that Bixa orellana seeds have a good antioxidant potential, DNA protective ability and anti-proliferative effect. Further studies are necessary for detailed chemical characterization and better understanding of their biological activities of the most active ingredients.