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Abstract

Emerging Therapeutic Approaches to Combat the Pandemicity of the Deadly Ebola Virus

Background: Since the identification of Ebola Virus (EBOV) in 1976, significant filovirus research has focused on developing antiviral therapies. However, despite promising vaccine candidates, no licensed prophylactics currently exist for preventing or treating filovirus infections.
Pathogenesis: The Ebola genome encodes only seven genes, which mediate the entry, replication, and egress of the virus from the host cell. Bats have been identified as a reservoir for Ebola viruses but it remains unclear if transmission to an end host involves intermediate hosts.
Diagnosis: Diagnosis within a few days after symptoms begin involves antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing, IgM ELISA, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Virus isolation. Clinical pictures: Initial signs and symptoms are nonspecific and may include fever, chills, myalgias, and malaise. Sufferers experience nausea, vomiting, internal bleeding and organ failure before they die.
Treatment: There are no approved treatments or vaccines available for Ebola virus disease (EVD) until today; however, there are a bunch of therapeutic approaches on the track which could have the real impact on control and prevention of this global threat. Among these, the one announced by the WHO opens some ones eyebrow and gives the real glimmer of hope to tackle EVD. The two “front running” vaccines on the track are cAd3-ZEBOV, a chimpanzee derived adenovirus vaccine developed by GlaxoSmithKline in conjunction with the US National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases, and rVSV-ZEBOV, developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada and now licensed to a US company called New Link.
Conclusions: Many promising vaccines are moving through preclinical or clinical trials, but mass immunization is unlikely due to the localized and sporadic nature of EBOV infections. Postexposure interventions are therefore necessary for the treatment of cases as they occur.


Author(s): Minyahil Alebachew Woldu, Jimma Likisa Lenjisa, Gobezie Temesgen Tegegne and Gizaw Dabessa Satessa

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