Introduction: Skeletal muscle injury results from a variety of mechanisms as contusion, strain, laceration, or a combination of more than one mechanism. Skeletal muscle trauma is associated with development of fibrous tissue scar. Stem cells transplantation could improve skeletal muscle regeneration.
Aim of the work: to compare the effect of bone marrow versus adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells in treatment of skeletal muscle injury in female albino rats.
Materials and Methods: Forty adult female albino rats weighing 150-200 gm were divided into three groups: Group I (negative control), Group II where the experiment lasted for ten days and group III where the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. Rats of group II and III were subjected to skeletal muscle laceration injury then were divided into three subgroups: subgroup a: rats were left for spontaneous healing, subgroup b: rats received a single intramuscular injection of 106 Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) at the site of injury, subgroup c: rats received a single intramuscular injection of 106 Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) at site of injury. Skeletal muscle biopsies were prepared for histological examination using H&E stain.
Results: untreated skeletal muscle laceration group showed a gap filled with granulation tissue and mononuclear cellular infiltration with deposition of collagen fibers (fibrosis). The BM-MSCs treated groups showed regeneration of muscle fibers with decrease collagen fibers. Meanwhile, the ADSCs treated group showed better results regarding the arrangement of the regenerated muscle fibers.
Conclusion: Intramuscular injection of ADSCs is preferable than BM-MSCs in the treatment of skeletal muscle laceration injury.