Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong
Received date: Jun 14, 2021; Accepted date: Jun 28, 2021; Published date: July 05, 2021
Citation: William Cho (2021) Unravel Facts and General Aspects about Leukaemia. Vol.6 No.3.5
Cancer is a condition where the body cells Strat to grow out of control. There are many types of cancer and leukaemia is one of them. Leukaemia is a condition where the chemical composition of the blood forming cells of bone marrow changes and the cells don’t die. The leukaemia cells accumulate in the bone marrow and occasionally fall into the bloodstream. This phenomenon causes rise in the number of white blood cells in the bloodstream. Through the bloodstream, leukaemia cells spread into different organs of the body and disrupt the normal functioning of that organ system.
There are 4 main types of leukaemia that include Acute myeloid (or myelogenous) leukaemia (AML), Chronic myeloid (or myelogenous) leukaemia (CML), Acute lymphocytic (or lymphoblastic) leukaemia (ALL), Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).
In the early stages of leukaemia flu like symptoms arise.
Major Symptoms such as Sudden weight loss, Swollen lymph nodes and spleen, tendency to bruise or bleed easily, bleeding gums or nose, blood stool or urine, Susceptibility to infections, headache, low-grade fever, mouth sores, skin rash, Bone and joint pain, Frequent fevers and coughing.
Leukaemia occurs when there is a mutation in the DNA of blood cells that causes uncontrolled growth, outnumbering the healthy blood cells.
While the exact cause of leukaemia is unknown there are certain risk factors associated with this disease. In the gender factor men are more likely to develop leukaemia compared to women. People within the age group of 20 years old and with specific blood disorders such as essential thrombocytopenia and idiopathic myelofibrosis are more susceptible. The patients who undergo Chemotherapy for other cancer may also develop leukaemia. Lifestyle factors such as smoking and exposure to a lot of radiation, certain chemicals and electromagnetic fields. People with family history of leukaemia and genetic disorder like Down syndrome are also susceptible to leukaemia. Evidence-informed treatments have shown a promising response to the treatment.
The treatment start with the patient administered with Radiation therapy in low doses before initiating stem cell transplantation. Stem cells are collected from the bone marrow of a healthy donor and transplanted into the patient’s bone marrow. This may be followed by chemotherapy in combination with targeted therapy for better treatment.