Department of Human sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
In the present study, the main purposes is to recognize the components of comprehensive understanding adaptive education and sustainable development education in planning lesson books of social studies and give suggestions in the field of development and optimization of these components by the use of Islamic authentic culture in local and global life quality. Education is the only formal organization teaching problem-based approaches and considers these approaches in long and short planning issues. The research method is of applied type due to the nature of research topic and descriptive research was used for its supplementation. Criteria and components are as following: Social justice, cultural diversity, bilateral respect and correlation, stability or solidarity, human rights, peace and friendly living, environment, conservation of natural resources, climate changes, rural and immigration, urbanization and prevention any unexpected events. The statistical community of the present study is the whole teachers of guidance school of social sciences of boy and girl 19th district of Tehran Megacity which they were selected as a randomly clustering multi-step process and the whole social studies books were considered as fullcounting lessons. The researcher replying on the educational components criteria was firstly analyzed the content of social studies lesson books to confident of the issue, the perspective of governmental guidance school teachers was evaluated by an authentic questionnaire. To analysis of data using SPSS 20 software was carried out. The results of the research show that the quantity and equality of the peace education components and UNESCO comprehensive understanding and sustainable development in the issue of documents of lesson planning were some extant to be considered but these have been little paid attention by authors towards lesson books contents. The teachers of the related lessons were not also familiar with the related components presenting that they have carried out very confined consideration of these elements.
comprehensive understanding, sustainable development, UNESCO criteria, guidance social studies books
The sustainable development and comprehensive understanding are the developmental perspective which includes the whole human population, animals, planetary species, ecosystem, natural resources and strategies against global challenges such as fighting against poverty, sexual equality, civilization dialogues and so on. In this case, the role of education in the representation and stability of sustainable development components and comprehensive understanding leading to the optimization of values and behaviors through education in various levels for making the effectiveness on people’s daily life helping an ideal future is inevitable . The decodes of education are for sustainable development . UNESCO is following the combination of Lasics, values and sustainable development methods and comprehensive understanding in all terms of learning and training for overcoming any social, economical, cultural and biological problems in the 21th century. The positive purposes and objectives of comprehensive understanding education include the recognition of social gaps, controversial debates, aggression and terrorism, preservation of cultural diversity and economical inhomogenities, supporting cultural communities and majority and giving peaceful setting for sustainable development . Based on the achieved study in relation to present and evaluate the basic concepts of comprehensive understanding education and training sustainable development and its components and criteria and contrastive comparison with Iranian-Islamic authentic culture as well as the perspective of 20 years Iranian documentary activity and localizing them can be effective foundations for peaceful and friendship setting around its components in this regard. But unfortunately no any serious achievements have been completed in this case. Hence, due to the necessity of introducing Iranian-Islamic authentic culture globally, the importance of purposes has been determined by the researchers as following. The first determination is to recognize the adaptation degree of criteria and components of comprehensive understanding education and sustainable development in lesson plans (The content of the lesson books is social studies). The second target is subjected to the given suggestions in relation to the development and comprehensive understanding education by using Iranian-Islamic authentic culture in the recovery of local and global life quality. In this article, the main question is whether comprehensive understanding criteria such as globalization and social justice, respect and solidarity and cultural diversity, peace and equity, human rights, environment, conservation of natural resources, climate changes, Rural transformation, sustainable urbanization, Disaster prevention and mitigation exist in guidance schools social studies as a lesson plan, and whether the knowledge and teachers function has difference in relation to criteria and components of comprehensive understanding and sustainable development.
According to the nature of research topic and it purposes, the method is of applied type and descriptive research was used to supplement the study. Based on given tables, the necessary indices were related to the books of guidance course social studies to analysis the content of the books. By the use of these cases, the whole books were analyzed in three dimension of the “text”, “picture” and “questions”.
The steps should be considered in text analysis are as following:
1-the text is being studied
2-A complete explanation is achieved in relation to the text and questions and hypothesis. This step is the first step of data analysis.
3-Then, the accurate analysis of each response separately begins. Hence, it must be noted the most important key words of the next.
4-In this step, clustering and counting (simple and complex words) is fulfilled.
After putting the words together, the thinking and perspective of the writer or narrator is the culture and spirit of a text in opposed to the words. Based on the method, the text and pictures of the books are being reviewed to break the most tiny pieces and significant (Theme) words. Then, these words by the aim of seeking center among them, they would be reviewed based on the issue. The comparative and establishment between two cases and final topics will be repeated for several times to obtain an acceptable stability and common satisfactory feeling between researchers.
The community, sample and sampling method:
The community statistics of the present study is included the whole books of social sciences in three guidance school courses in 2011-2012 as full-counting lessons. The whole lesson books are subjected to social studies which have been taught in three guidance school courses including: social studies, history and geography studies which totally 9 volumes of the books were consisted the first part of research statistical community. The second part of the study is subjected to social sciences teachers of nineteenth district of Tehran education department which they were 1920 ones during 2011-2012. Of statistical community features, it can be stated that they all achieve similar activities and they are similar in terms of education, payment and job opportunities. They have mostly scientific degrees in different fields and due to Iranian concentrated educational regulations and organizational structures the location of the statement is equally issued in this regard. The number of Tehran 19th district schools was 757 ones. To unify the statistical community, Non-private, Night shift, olds, Shahed, Nobles, Public selected and governmental schools were eliminated from the study to make a homogenous research. Then, the 19th districts were divided into five geographical areas of north, south, east and west. Based on the number of teachers, they were taken up accidentally. In the next step, half of other public guidance schools were accidentally chosen according to the following table:
Thus, the sample of the study using step sampling method and volume estimation table or sample size of the community , 226 ones were selected.
Data collection tools:
To gather data, it is firstly reviewed the references and related literature with the research in every terms and then, the content analysis was used for gathering the first part of the table. Each table includes the number of distribution related to the content, picture and the questions of the last lesson. This distribution is specified for the concepts of peace and sustainable development and other similar topics. In other words, the whole nine content of the book is being assessed in three terms of text, picture and question in the framework of peace education and sustainable development. In this table, it is struggled to analysis the basic components of sustainable development and comprehensive understanding criteria. That is, the text, pictures and questions of the books have been evaluated for several times, to break down it as the smallest units (themes). Then these words by the aim of finding centric among them, the review will be repeated. The comparative and deductive movement between first articles happens and the final articles will be frequently repeated. The obtained data is given in the second column of the table and distribution percentages are given in the last column. According to the issue of analysis and evaluation, it is concluded that these numbers and digits are located in table’s columns.
“Social justice” is subjected to the human rights and equity of the man in terms of social and economical equity such as poverty, sexual equity, human rights, education for everyone, health and etc. “Cultural diversity, friendship and respect”, conservation of cultural diversity, economical inhomogenity, specifying social gaps, controversions, aggression and terrorism and supporting cultural communities and majority and dialogue between religions and civilizations. Stability or sustainability, the optimization of values, behaviors through education in various levels for influencing on people’s life style.
The sustainability can have four aspects:
Sustainability in natural resources, political, social and economical sustainability:
“Human rights” meaning the rights of the men without considering race differences, sex, language, religion, politics, comments, nationality , social class, place of birth with respect to others, human equity and the consideration of issued social article of human rights commission . “Peace and friendship” is subjected to a real peaceful setting, human privacy without any battle and other peaceful controversial affairs and people partnership together. “Environment” is the approaches of overcoming social problems in sustainable life. “Conservation of natural resources” included the whole human population, animals, planetary species, ecosystem, natural resources for estimating the recent human needs such as fresh water, healthy weather and nines without endangering future generations.
“Climate changes”, this has been under unexpected changes due to the unceasingly technological and industrial growth in the world. The lack of any controlling planning would lead to destroy the whole population in this regard. “Rural changes and immigration”, half of world’s population are living in urban areas for their economical, political and social reasons. Along with this rough and harsh immigration, the young population is under more pressures in terms of education and environmental sustainability. ”Sustainable urbanization”, cities are the basic front line of social and economical changes. This makes people to be responsible against any wrong or criminal habits growing people’s lifestyle.
“Prevention of any catastrophic events”, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, flooding, and this kind of prevention can be useful for the whole population of the world (UNESCO, 2005). To describe the data based given tables, the necessary indicators such as the books of three years guidance school are available. These books are being evaluated in three dimensions of “text”, “picture” and “questions”. On the found themes, the central indices (mean, theme, middle), and distribution indices (variance and standard deviation) would be calculated and located into the distribution table.
According to the results of the table (single-sample) which has been done wholly, the mean of the sample equals to 2.00 and the statistics degree, Z, higher 15.255 equals criteria error. This results representing that the mean of sample harshly is away from the assumed degree.
The probability degree 0.000 suggestions that considering (α=0.05) should reject the zero assumption and what teachers believed that the above components have been negligibly evolved in lesson planners perspective.
According to the results of the above table, the single test which carried out on the components wholly, the mean of sample equals 3.25 and the degree of test statistics, z=3.536 equals criteria error. The results representing that the mean sample is harshly away from the assumed degree.
The probable degree 0.001 suggests that considering α=0.05 should be sure of rejecting the assumption of zero and teachers stated the higher percentage in terms of knowledge and function than applying the components but the mean knowledge and function is negligible in relation to sustainable development.
In the test of research hypotheses, due to the content of the carried out analysis and obtained results as well as given responds in special questions in this comprehensive analysis and evaluation of 3522 statements, picture and question led to seem that the only 8.63 % of social studies book themes in three years guidance, the whole comprehensive understanding components and sustainable development were fulfilled efficiently which they were acceptable at a negligible extent towards social elements making to review the related books to reach to the development documentary purposes, and educational public and guidance course targets as well.
The results of teachers comments in relation to the sustainable development and comprehensive understanding educational components in social studies of lesson book and degree of knowledge and function accurately show the fact that these elements were wholly analyzed in terms of the process at teachers perspective. The result representing that the mean sample is roughly away from the assumed degree. The probable degree 0.000 suggesting that the assumption (α=0.05) should be led to reject zero assumption and the lesson books of social studies at three years guidance course is not having the content of the above-mentioned components and teachers believe that the mentioned components have been negligibly considered in the books by lesson planners. These results should be led to the review of the related books for approaching to the basic targets. Availability to the whole people of statistical community of girl and boy governmental guidance school in 19th district educational center of Tehran had to achieve sampling because of having some restrictions and the enlargement of the community volume. The lack of enough researchers into Persian language in the field of comprehensive understanding and sustainable development and the existence of personal difference, the different internal moods and teachers’ political attitudes can intervene in the completion of the questionnaires and responses. But these are out of researcher’s choice to achieve it efficiently, although the researcher applied an accurate time, space and suitable people choice.
Due to the importance of α=0.05 management in educational system. Which is about to make a difference at educational system, it should be achieved from the management system and it is necessary for the officials of lesson books to measure the details of educational system and its requirements. In order to optimize the social lifestyle and educational system, it is necessary to make basic changes from childhood and the beginning of formal educations in educational system. In this regard, the task of thinking way should be considered instead of transferring knowledge. In this case, the basic affair of teacher-based system would be changed over student-based case, leading to logical thinking in nurtured people and the problems of the comprehensive understanding will never happen and the communities get together in peaceful surroundings. The study of knowledge and function at lesson planners and books elements than criteria and components of education of education and sustainable development are those cases which their review are mostly felt but no studied in the present study unfortunately. In the research of Ian Harris and Patrica Mische (2003) in relation to the relationship between peaceful education and environmental education, it is pointed that both environmental education. It is pointed that both environmental and peaceful educations try to aware students to prevent any aggressive behaviors (Poisonous contaminations, assassination). The positive peace means the lack of any aggression or systemic unfaireness. The positive peace can be defined as the existence of policies, systems and functions which respecting the self-esteem being confronted to humanistic needs environmental and social justice and making unification among the man. In an article led by Bluestein (2005) by the little of “basic concepts of peaceful education”, following the responses of the question whether these peaceful educational values can be effective in teaching the lessons of biology and mathematics? How can we learn our children and adults to experience the sound of the earth? The tree of the peace has many various branches including: In international education of students in relation to other cultures, they learn to raise and nurture their tolerance and suitability. Learning to disarm any guns tries to respect humanity as a rule in the statement of the UNESCO. The advanced and progression education of learning students is to be able to face at any worse and terrible catastrophic events tolerable more especially at social and ecological problems. As a result, students can apply peaceful tools in their debates and disputes. The results of the study showed that the quantity and quality of the peaceful education components and UNESCO comprehensive understanding and sustainable development is some extent to be considered in the issued documents and lesson planning, but it is not more paid attention by authors in the content of the books. The teachers of the related lessons also are not familiar with the related components and have sated little familiarity with this kind of elements.