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Heterosis Study in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids for Yield Attributing Traits in High Salinity Condition for Identification of Superior Sunflower Hybrids for Coastal Saline Belts

Lakshman SS1*, Chakrabarty NR2, Godke MK3 and Kole PC2

1AICRP-Sunflower, Nimpith, 24 Parganas (South), West Bengal, India

2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal, India

2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, AICRP-Sunflower, West Bengal, India

*Corresponding Author:
Lakshman SS
AICRP-Sunflower, Nimpith, 24 Parganas (South)
West Bengal, India
Tel: +91-9433474608
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: January 13, 2020 Accepted Date: January 23, 2020 Published Date: January 31, 2020

Citation: Lakshman SS, Chakrabarty NR, Godke MK, Kole PC (2020) Heterosis Study in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Hybrids for Yield Attributing Traits in High Salinity Condition for Identification of Superior Sunflower Hybrids for Coastal Saline Belts. Eur Exp Biol Vol.10 No.1:2.

Copyright: © 2020 Lakshman SS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 
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Abstract

Heterosis is the increase or decrease in vigor of F1 over its mid or better parental value. One of the objectives of present study was to estimate the extent of heterosis for various characters and to isolate promising hybrids over standard check hybrids for seed yield and oil content for commercial exploitation. The development of new high yielding and stable sunflower hybrids were based on hybridization which requires information on the heterotic effects for agronomically important traits in the F1 generation. Heterotic effects for seed yield and it’s attributing traits viz., plant height and head diameter, number of seeds per head, seed filling (%), 100 seed weight (g), 100 seed kernel weight (g), volume weight (g/100cc), hull content (%), oil content (%) and oil yield (kg/ha) were studied in the sunflower hybrids developed by the line x tester method. There are significant differences among the sunflower genotypes (inbred lines and F1 hybrids) we tested with regard to the mean values of all the traits involved. The male restorer inbred with good combining abilities were used as lines in the form of fertility restorers and CMS lines as Testers. There are significant differences among the sunflower genotypes (inbred lines and F1 hybrids) we tested with regard to the mean values of all the traits involved indicating considerable amount of heterosis foe most of the traits except hull content (%), oil content and seed filling per cent. Most of the crosses exhibited high heterosis especially for number of seeds per head seed yield (kg/ha) and oil yield (kg/ha). However, mean heterosis was comparatively low for hull and oil contents. The study on heterosis in sunflower showed that the crosses with favorable characteristics such as oil and seed yields, oil and hull contents could be bred from correctly selected parents. The cross CMS-853A X EC-623027 reached the breeding aim mentioned above, especially for high vigor in seed and oil yields. CMS-103A X EC-601878 and PET-89-1A X EC-601878 showed the negative heterosis for thin hull rate and high oil content.

Under present study, the genotypes, EC-601878 and EC-601751 with regard to all measured traits, CMS-852 A, CMS-103A and P-89-1A for seed yield, oil content and low hull rate could be used for increasing hybrid vigor in future sunflower breeding programs sunflower as well as the genotypes, viz., CMS 852A, CMS-853A and EC-623027, EC-623023 appeared to possess high concentration of additive genes for seed yield and component traits and, therefore, these parents can be considered as the good combiners for heterosis breeding programme for seed and oil yield improvement in sunflower.

Keywords

Sunflower; Heterosis; Seed yield; Oil yield; Yield components

Introduction

The main objectives of sunflower breeding programs are the development of productive F1 hybrids with high seed and oil yield. Sunflower oil yield is determined as the product of seed yield per unit area and the oil percentage in grains. Therefore, consideration of both components is important when breeding for high oil yield. National sunflower hybrid (development of new hybrid) breeding program is a continuous program that started in our country in the early 1980s. Sunflower hybrid breeding was started economically in discovering by Leclercq [1] and restorer genes by Kinman [2], Miller and Fick [3].

Heterosis of these crops has been exploited only over the past few decades. Hybrid sunflower became a reality with the discovery of cytoplasmic male sterility and an effective male fertility restoration system during 1970. Hybrid vigor has been the main driving force for the acceptance of this oilseed crop. Utilization of heterosis has allowed sunflowers to become one of the major oilseed in many countries of Eastern and Western Europe, Russia and South America and is an important crop in the USA, Australia, South Africa, China, India and Turkey. Sunflower hybrid breeding has thus played a vital role in the improvement of this crop. Increasing seed and oil yields is the top priority of most sunflower breeding programs. Getting benefits from the use of heterosis is the main purpose of sunflower hybrid breeding. In this study, an effort has been made to discuss the various approaches for hybrid breeding in sunflower and present status for the development of high yielding hybrids in sunflower with high seed and oil yield. The present study has been carried out to with the specific objectives to determine performance of sunflower varieties and to measure the vigor of sunflower hybrids in different location and year to identify one/few high yielding Sunflower hybrids with at least 10-12 higher seed and oil yield over best national check and suitable for cultivation in Rabi season. In India, the sunflower is grown on about 0.7 million ha [4] and mostly grown in the states of Karnataka, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu with potential scope of growing in the non-traditional areas like West Bengal [5]. In West Bengal, Sunflower is the second important oilseed crop after rapeseed-mustard during Rabi-summer season and it was grown on about 21,000 ha in the last Rabi season (2016-17). Due to short winter spell and delayed and heavy rainfall during the rainy season, the sowing of mustard was delayed which ultimately reduced the production of rapeseed-mustard. The delayed sowing also invites the insect pests in most of the years. Sunflower being a photoperiod natural crop has a wide scope to replace the rapeseed-mustard cultivation with high yield potentiality. In addition to ascertaining overall specific combining ability status of cross combinations, it is also equally important to ascertain the overall heterotic status of the cross combinations across the traits. The overall heterotic status of the cross combinations is estimated as the same method followed for overall specific combining ability status based on the rank sum of hybrid (mid-parent heterosis) across the traits compared with the final norm for the heterosis.

Methods

The present experiment was started in 2014-15 with aimed to breed and evaluates the performance of the sunflower hybrids with respect to yield and yield component and to identify the superior sunflower hybrids suitable for Rabisummer season in West Bengal agro-climatic condition. The objective(s) of the present study identified the good heterotic combinations, and to study the Heterosis and Heterobeltiosis. The crossing was affected in line X tester fashion and the resultant hybrids were subjected to combining ability studies. The genotypes were raised in Randomized Block Design with two replications wherein each replication was represented by three rows of three-meter length. The soil texture was clay loam in “On station” plots. Three irrigations were provided during the cropping period. One foliar spray was given with Boron at 2 g/l of water in the ray floret stage. The row per plot were five in number with a row spacing of 60 cm and plant to plant spacing was 30 cm. The uniform dose of fertilizer at 80 kg N, 40 Kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O per ha was applied. The germinated seed of sunflower used as the planting materials and one per hill were maintained throughout the cropping period. The data was recorded in ten randomly selected plants from each plot of all replications on the following characters viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height at harvest (cm), head diameter per plant (cm), seed weight per head (g), 100-seed weight (g), husk (or hull) content (%), volume weight (g/100 cc). The seed yield (kg/ha), oil percentage and oil yield (kg/ha) were estimated on plot basis (Table 1). The mean values were subjected to statistical analysis. In the very first year (2014-15), 56 of hybrids (developed from line X tester matting design) were evaluated and next year, 2015-16 and 2016-17, 56 superior hybrids were tested along with the two national checks LSFH-171 and DRSH-1 were evaluated for performance (seed/Oil yield) higher at research farm under AICRP Sunflower, Nimpith Centre in Randomized complete block design with three replications. The data pertaining to seed yield and other yield attributing traits for these test hybrids (Table 2).

Source of variation d.f. Days to 50% flowering Plant height Head Dia. No. of Filled Seeds/hd Gr. Filling% 100 seed weight Hull Cont.% Vol. Wt. (g/100 cc) Oil cont.% Seed Yield/Pl Seed yield/ (Kg/ha) Oil Yield (Kg/ha) 100 kernel Wt. (g)
Location 1 212.46 2978.5** 28.01 14545.1** 176.9 1.182 26.22 39.01 10.58 147.1** 441289.2** 35704.6** 0.25
Repl / Loc 2 27.14 540.8 9.03 6907.4 26.21 2.887 5.93 19.17 18.21 47.34** 143396.6* 47090.2 1.87
Line 7 194.04** 9449.0** 25.2** 21097.7** 36.11** 3.522 57.04** 35.63** 9.49** 650.2** 1965372.0** 229786.2** 1.641**
Tester 6 74.85** 4816.9** 20.23** 17476.8** 17.35** 0.64 55.80** 14.16** 6.49* 317.1** 958346.7** 108418.7** 0.547**
Line X Tester 42 31.86** 510.12** 21.50** 27690.3** 10.51** 0.654 16.30** 13.60** 2.38 58.32 176794.2** 21047.8** 0.394**
Line X LC 7 0.382 6.92 0.031 286.2 0.216 0.004 0.034 0.028 0.007 0.482** 1501.09 116 0.0009
Test X LC 6 0.36 4.27 0.036 69.14 0.199 0.003 0.009 0.033 0.004 0.453 1278.4 114.6 0.001
L X T X LC 42 0.29 2.37 0.026 80.3 0.015 0.002 0.054 0.01 0.005 0.247 752.3 80.27 0.0008
Error 110 0.002 0.261 0.002 155.21 0.029 0.003 0.008 0.006 0.002 0.034 98.22 28.83 0.001

Table 1: Analysis of variance parents and hybrids (Mean squares) for combining ability.

Name of
the parent
Days to 50% Flow. Pl. Ht. (cm) Hd. Dia.(cm) Seed Yield (kg/ha) 100 seed Wt.(g) 100 kernel weight Hull. Cont. (%) No. of filled grains/Hd. Gr. Filling (%) Vol. Wt (g/100 cc) Oil (%) Oil Yield (kg/ha)
CMS Line (L)                        
CMS-853A 67.9 118.6 11.5 1385 5.7 3.98 30.2 298 83.3 42.8 36.2 774.9
CMS-852A 65.6 123.5 11.8 1140 5 3.4 32.1 280 86.8 42.2 35.6 791.8
CMS-850A 66 116 12.8 1090 4.9 3.48 28.9 286 90.2 42 35.4 605.2
CMS-103A 65 129.3 12.3 1035 5.3 3.9 26.5 321 87.8 45.4 36.2 516.4
PET-2-7-1A 70.4 131.8 13.2 1150 5.5 3.68 33.1 364 86.9 43.7 35.2 740.5
CMS-207A 68.8 136 12.6 1100.5 4.6 3.14 31.8 478 88 40.4 35.4 677.8
PET-89-1A 71 107.8 10.5 1210 4.9 3.46 29.3 408 84 45.4 35.2 704.6
CMS-10A 69.4 141.9 12.4 1225 5.3 3.64 31.4 340 87.1 42.1 34 647.4
Range 65.0-71.0 107.8-141.9 10.5-13.2 1035.0-1385.0 4.6-5.7 3.14-3.98 26.5-33.1 340.0-478.0 83.3-90.2 40.4-45.4 34.0-36.2 516.4-774.9
G.M 68.01 125.61 12.14 1166.9 5.15 3.58 30.41 346.88 86.76 43 35.4 682.34
SEM (±) 1.1 2.2 0.3 36 0.17 0.08 0.9 18 1.6 0.8 - 12.6
C.D. (p=0.005) 3.2 6.2 0.8 108 0.52 0.21 2.8 54 4.8 2.4 NS 36
C.V. (%) 7.7 8.4 6.8 9.4 6.2 7.6 7.1 9.2 6.1 5.4 - 8.8
R line (T)                        
EC-623027 (M) 71.5 104.8 9.9 1020 5.6 4.14 26 393 77.5 45.3 38.9 718.1
EC-623023 71.3 95.8 7.5 825 5.3 3.76 29.1 283 85.2 43 38.2 706.4
EC-623021 64 87.4 8.6 780 5 3.53 29.5 262 87.5 42 42.5 671.6
EC-601978 66.3 87.4 11.6 770 4.9 3.45 29.6 286 87.9 42.9 42.5 727.8
EC-601751 62 91.2 9 720 5.4 3.78 30 256 85.5 43 42 563.8
EC-601725 70.5 84.2 9.8 880 5.2 3.5 32.7 308 83 44.6 41.8 731.9
EC-623016 69.8 86.2 6.4 690.5 5.1 3.62 29 235 86.3 41.5 41.5 656.8
Range 62.0-71.5 84.2-104.8 6.5-11.6 690-1020 4.9-5.6 3.53-4.14 26.0-32.7 256-393 77.5-87.9 42.0-45.3 38.2-42.5 563.3-773.9
G.M 67.91 91 8.97 812.2 5.21 3.68 29.41 289 84.7 43.19 41.1 682.35
SEM (±) 1.4 2.8 0.4 41.5 0.14 0.05 1.1 16.2 1.58 0.82 0.94 14.2
C.D. (p=0.005) 4.2 8.6 1.1 120 0.42 0.17 3.4 48 4.6 2.4 2.8 41.6
C.V. (%) 5.8 7.2 6.1 8.8 5.5 6.8 6.4 8.2 6.6 5.8 8.5 8.6

Table 2: Parental mean for yield and yield attributing characters.

The seed yield (kg/ha), oil percentage and oil yield (kg/ha) were estimated on a plot basis. The mean values were subjected to statistical analysis Singh and Chaudhary [6], Singh and Kakar [7]. The differences in mean were tested by Tukey’s test using MSTAT statistical software (MSTAT-C 1991, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI).

Heterosis

Percent increase or decrease of F1 over the mid parent has been referred as heterosis and percent superiority of F1 over better parent and standard check as heterobeltiosis and economic heterosis, respectively.

Heterosis, Heterobeltiosis and economic heterosis will be estimated as per the methods suggested by Fonesca and Patterson [8] for the individual as well as over the environments.

Results and Discussion

Significant genotypic differences existed for all the agronomic traits among the lines, testers and hybrids. The analysis of variance shows significant differences among the genotypes for all the above said characters studied. Hybridization helps to augment the desirable genes of various parents in one combination. Irrespective of general combining ability of the parents, certain combinations of parents can give superior hybrids (Table 3). Among the sunflower hybrids, for days to 50% flowering the heterosis was observed from -7.33% (CMS-207A X EC-623027 (M) to 20.37% (CMS-10A X EC-601751), for plant height the heterosis was ranged from 13.10 per cent (CMS-207A X EC-601978) to 123.2% (CMS-853 A X EC-623027 (Mono), for head diameter the heterosis was ranged from 19.90% (CMS-103A X EC-601725) to 101.02% (CMS-10A X EC-623016), for seed yield (kg/ha) heterotic variation was observed from 42.3% (P-2-7-1A X EC-623016) to 241.3% (CMS-10A X EC-601725), for number of filled seed/ head the heterotic variation was observed from 56.1% (CMS-850A X EC-623021) to 277.3% (P-2-7-1A X EC-601751), for seed filling% the heterosis was ranged from -3.47% (CMS-853A X EC601978) to 40.77% (CMS-853A X EC601751), for 100 seed weight (g) the heterosis was ranged from -8.49% (CMS-852A X EC-623027 (M) to 29.14% (CMS-850A X EC-601978), for 100 seed kernel weight (g) the heterotic variation was observed from -20.14% (CMS-207A X EC-623016) to 67.9% (CMS-850A X EC-623016), for hull content, the heterosis was ranged from -14.46% (CMS-103A X EC-601978) to 26.06% (CMS-103A X EC-623027); for volume weight (g/100 cc) the heterotic variation was observed from -12.68% (CMS-207A X EC-623027) to 31.10% (P-2-7-1A X EC-601978); for oil content%, the heterotic variation was observed from -14.92% (CMS-853A X 623016) to 8.98% (P-2-7-1A X EC-601751); for oil yield (kg/ha), heterotic variation was observed from 71.5% (CMS- EC-623021) to 223.8% (CMS-10A X EC-601725) respectively. Significantly less heterosis was recorded in the case of oil content (%) relative to the parental mean. A total of 6 crosses exhibited significantly better parent heterosis (Heterobeltiosis), for days to 50% flowering for earliness. The significant contribution in the induction of earliness in the above crosses is from CMS-850A, CMS-103A and CMS-10A. The findings have close proximity to Janjal et al. [9], Chandirakala et al. [10], Manivannan et al. [11].

Sl. No Hybrid combination 50% Flow. Pl. Ht. (cm) Hd Dia. (cm) Seed Yield (kg/ha) No. of Filled Grain/Hd Autogamy% 100 seed Wt. (g) 100 Kernel Wt. (kg) Hull Cont.% Vol. Wt. (g/100 cc) Oil% Oil Yield (Kg/ha)
1 CMS-853A X EC-623027 (M) 75 184.5 16.2 2462 731.5 87 6.1 4.1 32.1 42.8 35.7 879
2 CMS-853A X EC-623023 74.5 176.5 15.9 2428 746 87.5 5.9 4.1 29.8 43 35.6 864.5
3 CMS-853A X 623021 73.5 170 15.7 2292 792.5 87 5.6 4 27.8 43.7 36.4 834.5
4 CMS-853A X EC601751 69 158 15.4 1861 660 91.5 5.3 3.9 27.3 42.6 36.8 685
5 CMS-853A X EC601978 68.5 145 15.5 1575.5 543.5 86.5 5.4 4 24.8 45.3 37.4 589
6 CMS-853A X EC601725 75.5 182.5 16.1 2278 805 87 5.5 3.7 33.1 40 35.2 802
7 CMS-853A X 623016 72 160.5 15 2072 682.5 87.5 5.5 3.8 31.9 43.8 37.2 770.5
8 CMS-852A X EC-623027 (M) 76 175 15.1 2270 855.5 92 4.9 3.4 29.8 40 35.8 813
9 CMS-852A X EC-623023 76 170 15.4 2328 935 88.5 4.6 3 34.6 43.2 36.1 840.5
10 CMS-852A X EC-623021 77.5 174 15.4 2272 839 91 5 3.5 29.8 40 35.8 813.5
11 CMS-852A X EC-601751 72.5 160.1 15.4 2284 879 90 4.8 3.3 31.1 41.6 36.4 831.5
12 CMS-852A X EC-601978 66 153 15 1761 637.5 91.5 5.1 3.7 27.3 42.6 36.8 648
13 CMS-852A X EC-601725 70.5 155 16.7 2072 682.5 87.5 5.5 3.8 31.9 43.8 37.2 770.5
14 CMS-852A X EC-623016 73 175.5 15.3 2306 720.5 88.5 5.8 4.3 25.2 42.7 35.8 825.5
15 CMS-850A X EC-623027 (M) 69 133 15.2 1861 673.5 91.5 5.1 3.7 27.3 42.6 36.8 685
16 CMS-850A X EC-623023 64 122.5 13.8 1472 605 91 4.5 3.1 30.9 43.6 38.4 565
17 CMS-850A X EC-623021 63 112 13.2 1340 516 90 4.8 3.4 29 42.2 37.2 498.5
18 CMS-850A X EC-601751 69 133 15.4 1861 673.5 91.5 5.1 3.7 27.3 42.6 36.8 685
19 CMS-850A X EC-601978 65 92.5 9.6 1500 553.5 94 5 3.6 27.8 39.7 37 555
20 CMS-850A X EC-601725 69 112 13.7 1836 664.5 91.5 5.1 3.7 27.3 42.6 37.2 683
21 CMS-850 X EC-623016 68 122.5 13.3 1472 605 91 4.5 3.1 30.9 43.6 38.4 565
22 CMS-103A X EC-623027 (M) 67.5 138.5 13.5 1350 476 89 5.1 3.3 34.4 43.2 38.7 518.5
23 CMS-103A X EC-623023 67 135 12.7 1340 516 90 4.8 3.4 29 42.2 37.2 498.5
24 CMS-103A X EC-623021 66 132 12.7 1348 516 90 4.8 3.4 29 42.2 37.2 499.5
25 CMS-103A X EC-601751 67 130.1 13.4 1472 533 91.5 5.1 3.5 30.3 42.6 36.8 541.5
26 CMS-103A X EC-601978 66 124.5 12.8 1533 487.5 90.5 5.7 4.4 23.6 48.5 38.4 589
27 CMS-103A X EC-601725 62.5 120.5 12.2 1232 484.5 91 4.7 3.3 29.8 43.4 38.1 469.5
28 CMS-103A X EC-623016 64 124 12.7 1340 485 90 5.1 3.5 31 42.2 37.2 498.5
29 P-2-7-1A X EC-623027 73 184 16.4 2094 743 89 5.1 3.3 34.4 43.2 37 775
30 P-2-7-1A X EC-623023 68 145.5 15.7 2192 735.5 88.5 5.4 3.7 32.5 43.5 37.6 824.5
31 P-2-7-1A X EC-623021 70 168.5 14.9 1872 514.5 90 6.6 4.4 33.6 42.4 37.8 707.5
32 CP-2-7-1A X EC-601751 76 177.5 15.8 2340 770.5 87.5 5.5 3.8 31.9 42.6 35.2 824
33 P-2-7-1A X EC-601978 64.5 137.5 11.5 1340 457.5 90 5.3 3.6 30.8 45.6 38.7 518.5
34 P-2-7-1A X EC-601725 68 145.5 15.7 2192 735.5 88.5 5.4 3.7 32.5 43.5 37.6 824
35 P-2-7-1A X EC-623016 70 155.5 14.9 1878 501 90 6.8 4.5 33.6 42.4 37.8 710
36 207A X EC-623027 63.5 142.5 14 1567 616 92 4.7 3.1 32.6 39.6 39 611.5
37 207A X EC-623023 73 142.5 14.7 2194 922 88 4.4 3.1 29.3 39.9 36.4 799
38 CMS-207A X EC-623021 70.5 167 14.4 1886 696.5 90 5 3.3 33.8 38 37.5 707.5
39 CMS-207A X EC-601751 68 145.5 15.7 1962 658 88.5 5.4 3.7 32.5 43.5 37.6 737.5
40 CMS-207A X EC-601978 67 115 13.5 1431 498 90.5 5.2 3.5 31.9 39.2 38.5 551
41 CMS-207A X EC-601725 71.5 172.5 14.8 2017 776 86 4.8 3.2 33.1 40 36.8 742.5
42 CMS-207A X EC-623016 68.5 153 14 1547 665.5 92 4.3 2.9 32.4 40.2 38.5 596
43 P-89-1A X EC-623027 (M) 73.5 180 15.6 2218 911 88 4.5 3.1 30.9 45.1 37.6 834
44 P-89-1A X EC-623023 73 168.5 15 1974 793 89 4.6 3.1 31.6 39.7 36.8 726.5
45 P-89-1AA X EC-623021 71 148.5 14.2 1856 714 89 4.8 3.3 31.6 39.7 36.8 683
46 P-89-1AA X EC-601751 71 154 15.1 2144 761 85.5 5.1 3.5 30.6 45.5 37.4 802
47 P-89-1AA X EC-601978 68.5 123 12 1445 533.5 91.5 5 3.7 25.8 45.2 38.8 561
48 P-89-1A X EC-601725 73 148.5 15 1960 787.5 89 4.6 3.1 31.6 39.7 36.8 721.5
49 P-89-1A X EC-623016 67 136.5 13.9 1611 583 90 5.1 3.4 33.1 41 37.5 604.5
50 10A X EC-623027 72.5 167.5 15.4 1722 577.5 88 5.4 3.7 30.6 40.8 36.5 628.5
51 10A X EC-623023 64 154 14.6 1380 531 92 4.8 3.4 29 42.2 38.6 532.5
52 10AA X EC-623021 71.5 162.5 15.2 1722 577.5 88 5.4 3.7 30.7 40.8 36.5 628.5
53 10A X EC-601751 73.5 142.5 14.7 1967 826.5 87 4.4 3 31.6 39.6 36.4 716
54 10A X EC-601978 64.5 119 12.8 1306 482.5 92 5 3.5 29.8 40.3 38.2 499
55 10A X EC-601725 70.5 156.5 15.4 2240 795 86 5.1 3.4 32.5 44.6 37.6 842.5
56 10A X EC-623016 68 145.5 15 1792 601 87.5 5.4 3.7 32.5 41.5 38.2 685
  G. Mean 69.6 148.8 14.5 1840.5 661.8 89.4 5.1 3.6 30.6 42.2 37.2 682.3
Range 64-76 112.0-184.5 9.6-16.4 1232-2462 476 -935 87.0-94.0 4.4-6.8 3.1- 4.4 24.8-34.6 38.0-48.5 35.2-38.5 498.5-879.5
LSFH-171 (Ch-1) 80 194 15.6 2256 634 85.5 5.24 3.24 38.1 38.78 33.7 760
DRSH-1 (CH-2) 75 168.7 14.8 1978 557 87.2 5.68 3.76 34.5 41.36 38 751
SEM (±) 1.1 6.3 0.34 30.1 20.3 0.5 0.2 0.15 0.5 0.9 0.7 23.2
C.D. (p=0.005) 3.1 6.8 1 90.2 60.4 1.5 0.6 0.45 1.4 2.7 2.1 68.6
C.V. (%) 6.8 9.2 6.1 9.6 9.2 7.5 5.8 6.5 8.2 7.1 8.2 9.4

Table 3: Sunflower hybrids (F1s) mean for different yield and yield attributing characters.

In the sunflower dwarf to medium-tall plant is required because tall plants are prone to lodging therefore, negative heterosis, in this case, is desirable. A perusal of Table 4 revealed that only a single cross (CMS-207A X EC-623027 showed significant negative mid parent heterosis for days to 50% flowering. The sunflower hybrids CMS-207A X EC-623027 (63.5 days), CMS-10A X EC-623023 (64 days), CMS-10A X EC-601978 (64 days) and CMS-103A X EC-623016 (65days) recorded significantly lower days to 50% flowering.

Sl. No Hybrid combination Days to 50% Flowering Pl. Ht. (cm) Hd. Dia.(cm) Seed Yield (kg/ha) No. of Filled Grain/Hd Gr. Fil.%
h2 BP h2 MP h2 BP h2 MP h2 BP h2 MP h2 BP h2 MP h2 BP h2 MP h2 BP h2 MP
1 CMS-853A X EC623027 (M) 3.91 6.91** 72.30** 123.28** 53.27 ** 68.02** 101.74**  170.1** 90.00** 140.5** 3.86 8.84*
2 CMS-853A X Ec623023 9.42* 12.58** 52.09 ** 78.74** 61.98** 74.30** 119.73**  192.03 ** 106.65 ** 164.2** 1.87 7.68*
3 CMS-853A X 623021 10.37 ** 13.60** 37.11 ** 66.73** 56.22** 66.53** 111.73**  182.0** 119.38 ** 172.7** 6.89** 7.32*
4 CMS-853A X EC601751 6.15* 6.00** 31.74 ** 48.50** 33.33** 55.44** 72.71** 136.1** 82.19** 180.1** 2.49 40.77**
5 CMS-853A X EC601778 6.72* 10.27** 27.30 ** 38.96** 51.22** 75.33** 49.69**  92.4** 59.50** 73.06** 4.63 3.47
6 CMS-853A X EC601725 11.03 ** 14.24** 57.76 ** 87.39** 53.99** 67.54** 101.15**  175.0** 115.67 ** 214.4** 3.18 35.24**
7 CMS-853A X 623016 5.49* 8.55** 35.04 ** 51.08** 46.60** 64.79** 99.71**  148.1** 99.27** 192.8** 11.99** 34.30**
8 CMS-852A X EC-623027 (M) 10.14 ** 13.31** 38.31 ** 65.07** 32.17** 43.66** 110.19**  175.4** 130.44 ** 188.5** 2.91 12.61**
9 CMS-852A X EC-623023 12.18 ** 15.43** 46.38 ** 66.00** 54.17** 65.29** 136.95**  212.8** 169.26 ** 240.5** 4.42 6.57*
10 CMS-852A X EC-623021 16.98 ** 20.39** 60.61 ** 76.57** 50.98** 61.07** 136.67**  213.2** 141.44 ** 205.2** 3.03 9.84**
11 CMS-852A X EC-601751 13.73 ** 13.50** 39.52 ** 60.06** 31.62** 53.45** 139.16**  225.8** 152.22 ** 292.8** 6.21** 34.77**
12 CMS-852A X EC601878 0.38 3.77 40.98 ** 57.71** 44.23** 67.38** 89.35** 140.7** 94.95** 109.8** 3.06 7.19*
13 CMS-852A X EC-601725 5.62* 8.68* 47.62 ** 51.12** 54.63** 68.48** 105.15**  179.5** 89.85 ** 184.8** 2.25 32.35**
14 CMS-852A X EC-623016 8.96* 12.14** 45.57 ** 65.44** 46.13** 65.83** 152.02**  208.4** 119.16 ** 221.2** 9.12** 32.23**
15 CMS-850A X EC-623027 -0.36 7.17** 19.15 ** 38.16** 33.92** 64.72** 76.40** 119.2** 82.89** 91.3** 3.76 11.96**
16 CMS-850A X EC-623023 -5.88* 1.35 14.41 ** 32.24** 35.63** 71.88** 53.73**  91.4** 75.74** 83.2** 1.29 9.58*
17 CMS-850A X EC-623021 -5.26* 2.16 8.92* 26.68** 23.36** 59.69** 43.32**  78.6** 49.78** 56.1** 2.75 8.59*
18 CMS-850A X EC-601751 7.81* 12.77** 29.35 ** 47.07** 26.23** 75.95** 100.11 ** 156.4 ** 94.93 ** 141.2** 7.00 * 36.98**
19 CMS-850A X EC-601878 -1.52 6.68* -11.69 ** 13.88** -11.93 ** 24.87** 65.75 **  98.4 ** 54.83 ** 74.1** 5.66 * 10.05**
20 CMS-850A X EC-601725 2.99 10.98** 10.64 ** 29.08** 21.24** 58.46** 86.40** 139.8** 86.40** 124.3** 3.12 38.37**
21 CMS-850 X EC-623016 1.12 8.92* 19.83 ** 35.68** 38.54 ** 67.42** 65.39**  90.5** 85.73** 115.4** 7.68* 35.95**
22 CMS-103A X EC-623027 -1.82 0.99 17.05 **  20.23** 21.62** 25.24** 30.41**  70.3** 39.41** 73.3** 4.05 8.23*
23 CMS- 103A X EC-623023 -0.74 2.11 18.66 **  21.03** 27.96** 32.98** 44.09**  89.6** 62.52** 103.1** 2.68 7.74*
24 CMS-103A X EC-623021 0 2.91 16.52 ** 22.98** 21.53** 29.67** 47.66**  94.8** 62.39** 102.8** 4.15 7.97*
25 CMS-103A X EC-601751 -5.51 * 5.26 10.74 ** 18.91** 12.13** 30.17** 63.10** 121.8** 67.22** 162.4** 4.44 36.01**
26 CMS-103A X EC-601978 0.76 4.14 11.71 ** 24.34** 20.19** 38.80** 74.70 ** 120.9** 64.00** 72.9** 6.56 * 5.38**
27 103A X EC-601725 -6.02* -3.3 11.65 **  14.02** 10.41** 19.90** 28.67**  75.1** 46.93** 120.2** 3.39 36.62**
28 CMS-103A X EC-623016 -4.12 -1.35 7.84** 13.53 25.83** 34.05** 55.36**  88.7** 62.21** 137.0** 8.27* 33.48**
29 P-2-7-1A X EC-623016 2.1 8.11* 53.85 ** 82.18 41.99** 74.86** 93.00**  145.9** 109.89 ** 168.7** 2.85 12.66**
30 P-2-7-1A X EC-623023 -3.2 2.54 26.47 **  49.43** 51.33** 91.85** 121.97**  184.2** 122.88 ** 188.5** 3.21 10.19**
31 P-2-7-1A X EC-623021 1.82 11.13** 52.08 **  86.95** 36.70** 83.87** 93.99**  161.1** 55.79** 105.3** 0.11 12.67**
32 P-2-7-1A X EC-601751 14.72 ** 18.14** 60.20 **  86.53** 27.42** 77.52** 143.75** 221.4** 132.60 ** 277.3** 4.41 36.61**
33 P-2-7-1A X EC-601978 -5.49* 0.65 21.98 **  59.99** 8.6 46.64** 43.32** 76.6** 47.70** 61.2** 4.18 8.89**
34 P-2-7-1A X EC-601725 -1.81 4.08 33.24 **  59.02** 36.52** 78.43** 115.96** 185.4** 114.90 ** 232.6** 3.93 39.60**
35 P-2-7-1A X EC-623016 0.72 6.79* 41.11 **  63.65** 52.04** 83.86** 104.13** 42.3 ** 60.83** 143.3** 13.93** 40.20**
36 207A X EC-623027 -11.50 ** -7.33* 12.59 ** 22.15** 17.25** 28.47** 47.80** 84.6** 67.28** 93.5** 4.02 11.78**
37 207A X EC-623023 3.55 8.50* 18.45 **  26.09** 42.88** 51.85** 127.89** 185.3** 167.83 ** 211.1** 4.96 5.22
38 207-1A X EC-623021 2.17 7.11* 39.24 **  53.50** 30.79** 45.03** 52.58** 95.40** 102.18 ** 134.8** 2.97 7.84*
39 207A X EC-601751 2.26 4.08 23.45 **  31.27** 42.08 ** 50.74** 143.75** 170.3** 90.45 ** 169.3** 3.86 31.31**
40 207A X EC-601978 -2.19 2.98 8.3  13.1** 38.41** 44.31** 43.32** 89.2** 53.65 ** 105.7** 0.68 5.26
41 207A X EC-601725 2.88 7.80* 46.70 **  60.97** 31.45** 43.53** 115.96 ** 163.3** 93.40** 195.6** 5.85* 28.92**
42 207A X EC-623016 -1.79 2.92 26.00 **  38.24** 32.68 ** 45.60** 74.13** 100.2 ** 117.67 ** 169.4** 3.61 36.28**
43 P-89-1A X EC-623027 4.26 11.35** 47.87 **  91.70** 38.67 ** 72.24** 47.80**  174.4** 104.30 ** 207.3** 6.60* 10.02**
44 P-89-1A X EC-623023 5.42* 12.69** 43.80 **  86.70** 48.88 ** 91.18** 127.89 **  170.9** 125.91 ** 188.8** 9.46* 13.55 **
45 P-89-1AA X EC-623021 4.8 12.14** 31.50 **  72.64** 33.96 ** 75.59** 100.58 **  161.5** 109.10 ** 159.8** 4.46 9.70*
46 P-89-1AA X EC-601751 8.81* 13.02** 36.37 **  74.87** 24.79 ** 76.35** 109.78 **  212.8** 88.14 ** 242.4** 1.71 31.44**
47 P-89-1AA X EC-601978 1.86 9.49* 27.10*  56.03** 11.11 ** 60.00** 57.21** 101.8** 75.70 ** 100.7** -2.73 9.40*
48 P-89-1A X EC-601725 6.96* 14.41** 33.39 **  76.00** 33.93** 77.27** 103.69**  170.2** 68.61** 227.3** 7.02* 38.22**
49 P-89-1A X EC-623016 -2.19 4.59 21.52 **  55.29** 46.32** 78.88** 72.80** 120.1** 101.15 ** 158.9** 7.23* 38.06**
50 CMS-10A X EC-623027 5.45 * 12.81** 34.32 **  79.48** 38.12** 76.47** 98.92**  132.9** 61.61** 108.3** 4.29 8.68*
51 CMS-10A X EC-623023 -5.19* 1.53 28.17 **  71.70** 46.37** 94.54** 94.00** 109.2** 54.31** 106.8** 13.55 ** 18.83**
52 CMS-10A A X EC-623021 8.33* 16.11** 40.21 **  90.16** 44.76** 96.03** 86.53**  168.8** 51.61** 125.8** 7.18* 7.98 *
53 CMS-10A X EC-601751 15.75 ** 20.37** 22.95 **  62.87** 22.50** 78.82** 116.57**  219.12** 64.76** 201.7** 0.57 31.78**
54 CMS-10A X EC-601978 -1.53 6.05** 10 52.04 19.63** 78.53** 49.74** 101.8** 135.14 ** 68.8** -1.02 8.73*
55 CMS-10A X EC-601725 6.02* 13.59** 36.92 ** 86.72** 38.74** 89.27** 87.56**  241.30** 46.21** 258.7** 7.60* 31.58**
56 CMS-10A X EC-623016 1.87 9.12** 26.19 ** 66.56** 59.57** 101.72 ** 69.58**  170.3** 119.31 ** 191.3** 3.61 32.23**
  Lowest -11.5 -7.33 -11.69 13.1 -11.94 24.87 43.32 42.3 39.41 56.1 -2.73 3.47
Highest 16.98 20.39 72.26 123.2 61.98 101.72 152.02 225.8 169.26 277.3 13.93 40.77
Crosses with positive and significant heterosis 19 38 54 56 54 56 56 56 56 56 18 53
Crosses with negative and significant heterosis 6 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
SEm (±) 0.03 0.02 0.62 0.53 0.07 0.06 11.4 9.87 8.3 7.2 0.2 0.17

Table 4: Heterobeltiosis and Heterosis of sunflower hybrids for yield and yield attributing characters.

From our experiment, over the years of study, it was observed that the sunflower hybrids viz. CMS-103A X EC-601725 took minimum 92 days to mature followed by CMS-207A X EC-623027 (94 days), CMS-10A X EC-623023 (95 days) and CMS-10A X EC-601978 (95 days) and CMS-103A X EC-623016 (95 days) respectively. Therefore, these hybrids may be considered as the early maturing hybrids. Head diameter is one of the most important characters related to yield. Large heads accommodate more seeds which help to increase production. A perusal of Table 3 revealed that many of the hybrids showed significant and positive mid parent heterosis viz. CMS852A X EC-623016 followed by CMS-853A X EC-623027, CMS-852A X EC-623023, PET-89-1A X EC-601916 and CMS-852A X EC-623021 respectively for the said trait under study.

The hybrids, viz. CMS-852A X EC-623023 (935), P-89-1A X EC-623027 (911) CMS-852A X EC-601751 (879), CMS-852A X EC-623027 (M) (856) and CMS-852A X EC-623021 (839) showed significant and positive mid parent heterosis for number of filled grain per head. The % performance of most of these hybrids was significantly superior to the highest yielding check LSFH 171. Gangappa et al. [12] and many other workers also observed a higher magnitude of heterosis for a number of filled seeds in a sunflower. The F1s viz. CMS-852A X EC-623027 (M) (92%), CMS-853A X EC601751 (92%) and CMS-852A X EC601878 (92%), followed by CMS-852A X EC-623021 (91%), CMS-852A X EC-621951 (90%) showed significant and positive mid parent heterosis for seed filling percentage. The % performance of most of these hybrids was significantly superior to the highest yielding check LSFH 171 for grain filling (%). Rathi et al. [13] also observed a higher magnitude of heterosis for higher seed filling (%), 100 seed weight, and head diameter in sunflower.

Oil yield is the important criterion in sunflower which depends on the oil content of the genotype. For oil content, the range of heterosis was -14.98 to 8.98%. Only 2 sunflower hybrids, viz., CMS-10A X EC-623023, and CMS 10A X EC-623027 showed significant positive mid parent heterosis for the oil content (%). For oil yield (kg/ha), as performance per se, most of the hybrids were showed significant positive mid parent heterosis for the same trait PET-89-1A X EC-601916 followed by CMS-852A X EC-601751, CMS-853A X EC623023, CMS-850A X EC-601878, P-2-7-1A X EC-601751, CMS 852A X EC-623021, CMS-10A X EC-601725 and CMS-852A X EC-601725 respectively were found superior ones.

The studies revealed that the best cross combination for semi-dwarf plant height coupled with good seed yield per plant and high oil content were P-2-7-1A X EC-623023 (98 days maturity and seed yield of 2192 kg/ha), CMS-207A X EC-601751 (98 days maturity and seed yield of 1962 kg/ha), P-2-7-1A X EC-601751 (100 days maturity and seed yield of 1872 kg/ha) and P-89-1AA X EC-601751 (101 days maturity and seed yield of 2144 kg/ha) respectively.

Seed yield is an exceedingly complex quantitative trait in sunflower, whose control involves a series of genes, because practically all traits have some influence, to a large or small measure, on the seed yield. However, heterosis occurred practically for all traits with different magnitudes. The highest positive heterosis observed for seed yield was explained by the sum of favorable values of heterosis for the different traits correlated with seed yield. A similar type of report was found by Suresha et al. [14] and Patil et al. [15] and Raghavendra et al. [16].

Among the 56 sunflower hybrids under study, CMS-853A X EC-623027 (2462 kg/ha, 77 days to flower, and oil yield of 881 kg/ha, 100 seed weight 6.2 g), CMS-853A X EC-623023 (seed yield 2428 kg/ha, 75 days to flower, oil yield of 861 kg/ha, 100 seed weight 6.2 g), CMS-852A X EC-623016 (2306 kg/ha, 75 days to flower, oil yield of 840 kg/ha and 100 seed weight 5.9 g) possessed superiority for seed yield, oil yield as well as high 100 seed weight and high volume weight. As per the performance per se and heterosis study, it was revealed that the best cross combination for semi-dwarf plant height coupled with good seed yield per plant and high oil content are P-2-7-1A X EC-623023 (98 days maturity, seed yield of 2192 kg/ha), CMS 207A X EC-601751 (98 days maturity, seed yield of 1962 kg/ha), CMS-850A X EC-601751 (99 days maturity and seed yield of 1861 Kg/ha), CMS 852A X EC-601725 (100 days maturity, seed yield of 2072 kg/ha), and CMS-10A X EC-601725 (100 days maturity and seed yield 2240 kg/ha and oil yield 842 kg/ha), P-89-1A X EC-601751 (100 days maturity and seed yield 2245 kg/ha, oil yield 835 kg/ha) and P-2-7-1A X EC-601725 (100 days maturity and seed yield 2192 kg/ha, oil yield 824 kg/ha) respectively. Among 56 hybrids studied, the desirable negative significant mid parent heterosis was manifested by F1 viz., CMS-103A X EC-601978 (23.6%) followed by P-89-1AA X EC-601978 (25.8%), CMS-853A X EC601978 (24.8%), CMS-853A X EC-601751, CMS-852A X EC601978 (27.3%), CMS-10A X EC-623023 (29%), CMS-207A X EC-623016 (29.5%), PET-89-1A X EC-601916 (30.2%) and CMS-852A X EC-601751 (30.5%) respectively. The parental lines viz. CMS-852A, CMS-103 A, PET-89-1A and Rf line viz. EC-601978, EC-601751 and EC-623016 for hull content have contributed to desirable significant negative heterosis in the above hybrids for low hull content in a desirable negative direction. The high volume weight is having a direct relation with the weight of seed yield and high oil percentage and therefore, high oil yield per unit area. The desirable positive significant mid parent heterosis for the same traits was observed in F1s viz., CMS-103A X EC-601978 (48.5 g) followed by P-2-7-1A X EC-601978 (45.6 g), CMS-853A X EC601978 (45.3 g), P-89-1AA X EC-601751 (45.3 g), P-89-1AA X EC-601978 (45.2 g), CMS-852A X EC-601725 (43.8 g), CMS-853A X EC-623016 (43.6 g), CMS-850A X EC-623023 (43.6 g), 207A X EC-601751 (43.5 g) respectively. All the three sunflower hybrids were high oil percentage and significantly superior over the LSFH-171 (Tables 3-5). The parental lines viz. CMS-852A, CMS-853A, CMS-103A, PET-89-1A and Rf line viz. EC-601978, EC-601725, EC-623023 and EC-623016 with might have significant positive GCA effects for volume weight which might be contributed for desirable significant positive heterosis in the above hybrids for high volume weight in a positive desirable direction.

Sl. No Hybrid combination 100 seed Wt. (g) 100 kernel weight Hull Cont.% Vol. Wt. (g/100 cc) Oil% Oil Yield (Kg/ha)
h2 BP h2 MP h2 BP h2 MP h2 BP h2 MP h2 BP h2 MP h2 BP h2 MP h2 BP h2 MP
1 CMS-853A X EC-623027 (M) 5.49* 7.96* 1.8 3.5 8.37* 10.14** -2.84 0.23 -4.93 -2.28 95.77** 152.1**
2 CMS-853A X EC-623023 5.22* 7.27 * 5.74* 6.84 * -1.34 0.51 0.23 2.21 -4.30 * -2.39 111.89** 171.6**
3 CMS-853A X 623021 1.63 3.74 5.51* 6.23 * -9.12* -6.87 * 3.07 4.81 -7.56 * -3.49 100.36** 161.4**
4 CMS-853A X EC601751 0 2.2 -36.4** 3.49 -18.78** -8.70 * -0.58 2.5 -15.60** -6.54 * 65.36 ** 122.6**
5 CMS-853A X EC601778 -3.6 11.70** 22.8** 3.21 -22.91** 17.61** 5.59 * 18.06** -4.35 ** 2.63 46.61** 76.9**
6 CMS-853A X EC601725 0 6.20* -67.2** -2.67 -5.53* 5.09 * -8.47 * -3.84 -19.68 ** -9.74 * 84.69** 149.9**
7 CMS-853 A X623016 1.85 8.27* -63.4** -1.32 -2.63 7.60 ** 3.91 5.61 * -4.25 -14.92** 95.68** 139.5**
8 CMS-852A X EC-623027 (M) -10.07* -8.49 * -9.53** -7.97 * -2.56 -0.83 -8.57 * -5.80* -3.89 -1.57 102.49** 160.4**
9 CMS-852A X EC-623023 -12.83* 11.65** -17.4** 16.64** 11.04** 12.91** 1.41 3.25 -2.17 -0.58 133.15** 198.2**
10 CMS-852A X EC-623021 -2.74 -1 -0.65** 0 -5.31* -3.25 ** -4.99 -3.55 -8.38 * -4.67 120.46** 187.7**
11 CMS-852A X EC-601751 -1.31 -4.04 -68.0** -4.38 -9.97* 0.65 -2.23 0.63 -16.20** -6.85 * 126.72** 206.6**
12 CMS-852A X EC601878 -2.88 14.37** 1.94 23.3** -17.33** 12.08** 0 11.72** -5.15 * 1.37 82.92** 118.5**
13 CMS-852A X EC-601725 7.84* 15.20** 8.70 * 65.4** -11.36** -1.7 0.92 5.92 * - 14.77 ** -3.88 99.22** 171.0**
14 CMS-852A X EC-623016 14.85** 22.91** 24.00** 56.4** -9.37* 17.51** 2.03 3.51 -17.86** -7.13 * 138.41** 189.3**
15 CMS-850A X EC-623027 -3.35 -4.46 -1.48 7.63* 0.7 -4.04 -2.41 1.27 -2.37 -0.94 74.97** 114.0**
16 CMS-850A X EC-623023 -4.09 12.32** -5.58* 14.58** -6.57* 6.38* 2.59 5.19* 2.15 4.35 61.20** 95.2**
17 CMS-850A X EC-623021 -3.35 4.92 -3.57 7.31* -19.82** -0.68 0.48 2.74 -4.55 -4.25 38.86** 71.5**
18 CMS-850A X EC-601751 3.58 18.81** 6.38 * 62.8** -14.60** -6.67 * 0.35 4.08 -5.58 * -1.65 92.01** 145.4**
19 CMS-850A X EC-601878 -3.41 29.14** -1.38 36.4** -23.11** -5.60 * -6.59 * 5.21* - 17.27** -4.39 61.22** 82.3**
20 CMS-850A X EC-601725 0.5 20.97** 5.61 * 65.0** -6.97* -11.36** -1.62 3.99 -14.40** -3.63 81.29** 133.7**
21 CMS-850 X EC-623016 8.31* 10.55** 12.77** 67.9** 6.56 * 24.16** 4.43 6.76 * -0.13 5.70* 68.03** 92.8**
22 CMS-103A X EC-623027 -8.43* -6.42 * -16.6** 15.32** 2.14 26.06** -4.74 -1.47 3.06 1.73 34.33** 79.5**
23 CMS-103A X EC-623023 -11.53** 10.38* -12.6** 11.76** 1.06 4.32 -4.52 -2.43 -1.61 0 44.49** 92.9**
24 CMS-103A X EC-623021 -8.96* -7.77 * -10.0** -9.40 * -4.55 3.57 -3.43 -1.56 -15.81** -5.52 * 41.30** 92.4**
25 CMS-103A X EC-601751 -0.98 1.27 -66.4** -4.08 -22.15** 7.84 * -3.51 -0.29 -6.54 * 5.10* 54.16 ** 118.6**
26 103A X EC-601978 6.54 * 24.44 13.12** 34.9** -10.04** -16.46** 9.73 * 22.73** -13.21** -1.79 73.87** 115.6**
27 CMS-103A X EC-601725 -4.91 11.43* -70.6** 11.76** 0.41 0.68 -3.56 1.53 -15.14** -2.31 26.46** 80.0**
28 CMS-103A X EC-623016 -2.88 3.92 -65.8** -7.07 * 5.58* 11.53** -2.88 -1.04 -4.25 3.87 50.72** 90.3**
29 P-2-7-1A X EC-623016 -14.65** -8.11 * -13.8** 13.12** -2.28 12.44** -2.92 10.51** -0.13 5.8 93.27** 155.6**
30 P-2-7-1A X EC-623023 -7.22* 0 -2.17 -2.01 2.64 4.34 0.35 13.02** 2.45 2.3 129.03** 202.2**
31 P-2-7-1A X EC-623021 19.10** 25.71** 21.10** 24.7** -12.80** 7.19 * -1.05 10.06** - 17.51** -2.77 91.99** 170.1**
32 CP-2-7-1A X EC-601751 1.65 5.77 * -63.8** 4.9 -11.91** 1.59 -1.62 12.19** -9.45 * 8.99* 124.98** 214.2**
33 P-2-7-1A X EC-601978 -2.75 6.12* 18.4** -2.27 * -14.61** -2.22 5.19 * 31.10** -12.34** 0.26 46.57** 80.3**
34 P-2-7-1A X EC-601725 0.93 1.19 -66.7** 1.39 -6.02* -1.37 * -1.47 14.49** -11.70** -2.34 113.33** 199.3**
35 P-2-7-1A X EC-623016 19.16** 28.30** -55.1** 23.84** 7.15* 8.05 * -0.47 11.89** -1.43 6.98* 105.35** 157.1**
36 CMS-207A X EC-623027 -10.46** 11.43** -13.7** 15.84** -5.55* 13.61** 4.45 -12.68** -0.07 5.26 55.90** 97.5**
37 CMS-207A X EC-623023 -13.35** 14.71** -18.00** -11.7** 7.92* 0.34 -9.73 * -2.3 -0.82 -0.4 127.47** 186.3**
38 CMS-207-1A X EC-623021 0 1.3 -7.61 * -2.7 -5.52* 14.80** -6.03** 13.04** -13.62** -3.54 96.66** 152.7**
39 CMS-207A X EC-601751 10.20** 16.16 -63.9** 5.80 * -2.93 10.19** -1.47 7.95 ** -3.28 5.84* 111.89** 174.8**
40 CMS-207A X EC-601978 0.97 23.49 -6.71 * 24.4** -7.52* 6.17 ** 5.64* 11.31** -15.96** -0.26 59.71** 87.6**
41 CMS-207A X EC-601725 -5.94 * 4.74 -70.3** -9.14 * -3.47 1.07 -0.86 11.11** -11.81** -4.42 96.69** 163.7**
42 CMS-207A X EC-623016 -5.35* 15.00** -70.7** -20.14** 0.29 11.55** -7.48 * -0.09 0.39 3.24 76.85** 110.8**
43 P-89-1A X EC-623027 -15.98** 12.75** -23.12** -13.6** 0.6 10.18** 5.25 * 15.5** 1.16 1.21 102.06** 182.5**
44 P-89-1A X EC-623023 -11.11** -8.08 * -16.93** -8.66* -0.52 8.42 ** -4.8 3.35 -2.18 0.00 95.43** 174.4**
45 P-89-1AA X EC-623021 -4.33 -1.04 -1.3 -8.31 * -11.91** 6.95 * -3.64 4.39 -5.58 * -13.98** 79.62** 157.1**
46 P-89-1AA X EC-601751 7.07 * 7.87 * -64.7** 2.61 -22.44** 3.21 9.24 * 20.0** -4.04 6.80* 112.17** 215.5**
47 P-89-1AA X EC-601978 -1 14.71** -3.42 32.2** -12.73** 14.00** 8.39 * 30.2** -15.86** 0.26 53.49** 100.6**
48 P-89-1A X EC-601725 -1.91 -7.14* -70.7** -11.00** -2.35 -3.52 -6.59 * 4.7 -14.04** -4.66 81.28** 169.9**
49 P-89-1A X EC-623016 4.12 9.64 -65.4** -6.11 * -2.69 13.97** 0.12 8.41** -2.47 -0.58 69.09** 125.3**
50 CMS-10A X EC-623027 -0.92 4.18 -6.37* 8.57* -9.74* 9.46* -6.64 * 3.19 0.14 5.43* 54.52** 130.7**
51 CMS-10A X EC-623023 -4.33 10.38** -10.00* 2.3 -5.35* -0.34 -0.82 8.43** -3.67 6.93* 45.59** 120.0**
52 CMS-10AA X EC-623021 4.85 11.29** 5.49* 7.6*** -10.75** 3.9 -2.97 5.84** -16.84** -4.64 67.94** 158.7**
53 CMS-10A X EC-601751 -4.71 14.71 ** -70.0** -13.77* -12.06** 6.59* -6.82* 3.16 -4.9 4.38 92.47** 209.3**
54 CMS-10A X EC-601978 -7.48 * 18.90** -8.55 * 30.5** -11.81** -0.67 -5.29 * 14.49** -14.52** 0.53 38.80** 94.2**
55 CMS-10A X EC-601725 -2.86 13.24** -67.3** -1.57 -6.18* -0.76 2.88 16.07** -12.94** -0.79 114.92** 244.4**
56 CMS-10A X EC-623016 3.85 20.80** -62.2** 1.39 7.65* 11.90** -0.72 8.27** -14.40** 1.19 94.88** 178.9**
  Lowest -15.98 -8.49 -70.7 -20.14 -23.11 -16.46 -9.73 -12.68 -19.67 -14.92 26.46 71.5
  Highest 19.16 29.14 24.05 67.9 11.04 26.06 9.73 31.1 3.06 8.98 138.4 244.4
  Crosses with positive and significant heterosis 10 25 12 22 7 26 7 27 0 7 56 56
  Crosses with negative and significant heterosis 10 6 36 12 33 6 9 2 12 7 0 0
  S. Em (±) 0.11 0.09 0.05 0.04 0.263 0.227 0.162 0.14 0.147 0.127 6.35 5.5

Table 5: Heterobeltiosis and Heterosis of sunflower hybrids for yield and yield attributing characters.

In sunflower, 100 seed weight is having a direct relation with the weight of seed yield. The desirable positive significant mid parent heterosis for the same traits were observed in F1s viz., Pet-2-7-1A X EC-623016 (6.8 g) followed by P-2-7-1A X EC-623021 (6.6 g), CMS-853A X EC-623027 (M) (6.1 g), CMS-853A X EC-623023 (5.9 g), CMS-103A X EC-601978 (5.7 g), CMS-207A X EC-601878 and CMS-10A X EC-623021, CMS-10A X EC-623016 respectively. The parental lines viz. P-2-7-1A, CMS-853A and CMS-207A, EC-623027 (M), EC-623023, EC-623023 and EC-601978 have contributed to desirable significant positive heterosis among the above hybrids for high 100 seed weight.

Hybridization helps to augment the desirable genes of various parents in one combination. Irrespective of the general combining ability of the parents, a certain combination of parents can give superior hybrids (Table 3). Higher seed volume weight in sunflower is often associated with higher seed yield as well as oil content. CMS 852A and CMS-853A testers recorded significant values; therefore, these parents can be considered as the good combiners for high oil content as well as for high seed yield. The studies revealed that the best cross combinations for high 100 seed weight and high volume weight were CMS-852A X EC-601725, P-2-7-1A X EC-623016, CMS-207A X EC-601751 and CMS-207A X EC-601978. Recently high heterotic hybrids for seed yield were also reported by Tyagi et al. [17], Chandra et al. [18], Parameshwarappa et al. [19], Gaurishankar et al. [20].

These crosses involved at least one parent with high GCA effects and had high seed yield and other yield attributing traits at performance per se. The results revealed that it is desirable to involve parents contrasting for GCA effects to realize a high frequency of hybrids with high overall performance per se and heterotic status. Thus, the present study clearly established the superiority of L × H/H × L type of crosses followed by H × H category of crosses. This type of observation was also brought out in the studies by Tyagi et al. [21], Supriya et al. [22] and Sahane et al. [23].

Conclusion

Most of the crosses exhibited high heterosis, especially for seed and oil yields. However, mean heterosis was comparatively low for hull and oil contents. The study on heterosis in sunflower showed that the crosses with favorable characteristics such as oil and seed yields, oil and hull contents could be bred from correctly selected parents. The cross CMS-853A X EC-623027 reached the breeding aim mentioned above, especially for high vigor in seed and oil yields. CMS-103A X EC-601878 and PET-89-1A X EC-601878 showed the negative heterosis for the hull rate. The evaluation of inbred lines based on all three criteria of heterosis showed that the crosses of the female line 853-A and the male line EC-623027 revealed higher hybrid vigor in cross combination than the other lines and testers for yield attributing traits.

Under present study, the genotypes, EC-601878 and EC-601751 with regard to all measured traits, CMS-852A, CMS-103A and P-89-1A for seed yield, oil content and low hull rate could be used for increasing hybrid vigor in future sunflower breeding programs as well as the sunflower genotypes, viz., CMS 852A, CMS-853A, and EC-623027, EC-623023 appeared to possess high concentration of additive genes for seed yield and component traits and, therefore, these parents can be considered as the good combiners for heterosis breeding program for seed and oil yield improvement in sunflower.

References

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