Annals of Clinical Nephrology is an international open access peer reviewed that publication encourages the latest research advancements in the field of renal disease.
The journal focuses on the care and treatment of kidney disease by publishing the latest research on Nephrolithiasis, acute kidney failure, Geriatric Nephrology, Urology and urogynecology, Critical Care Nephrology, Renal Tubular Acidosis, proteinuria, Hypertension and the Kidney, Nephrotic Syndrome, Renal Transplantation.
The journal encourages advancements in the above mentioned fields in the form of Original articles, reviews, short communications, rapid communications, letters to the editor, abstracts, addendums, announcements, article-commentaries, book reviews, annual meeting abstracts, calendars, case-reports, discussions, meeting-reports, news, orations, product reviews, hypotheses, and analyses.
The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of Clinical Nephrology. The articles will be examined by a scientific committee and anonymous evaluators and published every month in HTML and PDF formats.
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Scientifically the term nephrolithiasis is defined as process of formation of kidney stone.. Formation of kidney stone takes place because of both genetic and environmental factors. Stone formation is also the result of enhanced mineral level in urine eg. Carbonates, sulphates, sulphides, calcium, magnesium etc. Kidney stone is a common reason of pain in the abdomen, flank or groin as well as it is a cause of blood in urine. There are so many diagnostic technique has been discovered such as Abdominal CT scan, abdominal or kidney MRI, X-ray, intravenous pyelogram, kidney ultrasound etc. Treatment for this is variable according to the severity of the pain. Drinking water for at least 6-8 glass per day will help to produce large amount of urine and promotes the stone pass. For some types of stone doctors will prescribe allopurinol, antibiotics, diuretics, phosphate solutions, water pills, sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate etc.
This condition is the result of sudden kidney dysfunction. In such case kidneys abruptly loss their property to discharge excess salt fluids and waste materials from the body. Loss of filtering property of kidney results in high level saturation of fluids which may lead to cause a life threatening instances. Sudden or severe dehydration, urinary tract obstruction , autoimmune kidney diseases, acute tubular necrosis are the reasons of acute kidney failure. Abdominal CT scan, abdominal or kidney MRI helps a nephrology specialist to detect if there is any blockage in an urinary tract. Medication for this are as follows:- Naproxen a non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, Gentamicin an antibiotic, Furosemide a diuretic and sometimes specific surgery.
Internal medicine branch of medicine now a days taking a lots of efforts to improvise a research in field of nephrology especially to treat geriatrics i.e. an elderly people health care. As the edged body is different physiologically form infant, young and elder body, this is so obvious because comparatively all organ system shows declination in their regular activities as age goes on increasing. Back history of every patient is different according to his own choice of lifestyle and a group of diseases associated with it in early stage of life. So it’s a big challenge in front of a geriatrician to diagnose diseases in older stage of life. Chronic kidney dysfunction (CKD) is one of them. In this case patients unable to experience any symptom unless they immediately need for dialysis. To avoid CKD in old age of life one has to take care of diseases like diabetes, atherosclerosis, enhanced lipid level and blood pressure in early stage of life because slowly it leads to abnormal kidney function. One can control this with early precise diagnosis and can overcome kidney dysfunction and complications associated with it and need for dialysis as well.
Related Journals: Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics, Journal of Aging and Geriatric Medicine, Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research, Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
In today’s era most of the individuals irrespective of their age , sex and physiology are suffering from n number of urological disorder. Nephrology is mainly deals with the study of physiology and diseases of kidney. Ultimate loss of kidney function results in a need for dialysis of a patient. In such condition a patient needs a precise diagnosis, sophisticated organ support and continuous assistance for over time.
Urology is the branch of medicine which deals with the study of surgical prospects and medical diseases related with urinary tract of both male and female. Here urinary tract and reproductive tract are closely associated so one infection commonly affects the other, that’s the reason main focus of study in urology is present under the domain named as genitourinary disorders. Urological disorders can be prevented with developed surgical operations such as invasive robotic surgery, laparoscopic surgery, laser assisted surgery etc.
Urogynecology is the branch of medicine deals with the study of surgical specialities in both urology and gynelogy. Howard Kelly is the pioneer of these studies. Specialist in this field has a knowledge of female reproductive system as well as urinary tract diseases. Urogynaecologists manage women with urinary incontinence and pelvic floor dysfunction. Pelvic floor disorders affect the bladder, reproductive organs, and bowels. Common pelvic floor disorders include urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse and fecal incontinence. The specialist in this field are also responsible for the supervision of women who have suffered trauma to the perineum at the time of childbirth.
Renal Tubular Acidosis is occurred when kidneys of an individual are unable to function smoothly this results in an accumulation of acid and acidify urination. RTA is the result of transport defects in the reabsorption of bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions , the excretion of hydrogen (H+) ions , or both. Based upon clinical and laboratory characteristics RTA classified in three types i.e. type 1(distal), type 2 (proximal) and type 4 (generalized). Impairment in hydrogen ion secretipon in distal tubule results in high acidic urination, i.e. (>5.5). The proximal tubule is the major site for reabsorption of filtered HCO3- produces urine of pH >7. Patient suffering from this mostly undergo alkali therapy which generally varies with type.
Now a days because of fast lifestyle blood pressure or a hypertension is commonly occurring in early stage of life. This hypertension leads to cause several kidney diseases and end stage renal diseases. Hypertension can damage to the blood vessels and filters in the kidney which results in obstruction of removal of waste from body. Preferred treatment in such cases is Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is the drug which helps to widen the blood vessel to manage the blood amount the heart pumps and lower the blood pressure. ACE inhibitors also helps to reduce the work load of a heart by increasing blood flow. Another treatment with different mechanism is of Angiotensin receptor II blocker which blocks the chemical Angiotensin II which narrows the blood vessel. One can also overcome through such condition by modifying their unhealthy lifestyle to healthy one.
Nephrotic syndrome is a syndrome which includes symptoms of nephrosis i.e. any of various forms of kidney disease. Nephrotic syndrome is happened because of different disorders of kidneys. Such various disorders includes protein in the urine, low protein levels in the blood, high cholesterol level, Hypoalbuminemia , edema etc. Diagnosis of this syndrome can be done by performing various biochemical tests e.g. Albumin blood test, blood urea nitrogen, urinalysis etc. Goal of a treatment for such syndrome is reliving symptoms, prevent complications and kidney damage. Treatments includes ACE inhibitors use to control blood pressure, corticosteroids and other drugs that suppress the immune system , controlling high cholesterol level, a low salt diet to avoid swelling , diuretics, blood thinner drugs to avoid blood clots etc.
End stage renal diseases patients mostly undergo kidney or renal transplantation. It is a procedure to put a healthy kidney inside the human body or a recipient body. Here two types of donors are present first is a living donor who is anyone from family, friend circle, colleague or any person who is willing to give a kidney to save life. Another donor is deceased donor who is recently died. This kind of surgery is preferred to avoid dialysis as well as longer survival of a patient. Several risks are also involved in this such as bleeding, severe infection, new kidney rejection, reaction to the anaesthesia used during surgery, failure of the donor etc. To avoid problem of new kidney rejection a patient must prescribed with the immunosuppressant’s eg cyclosporine , tacrolimus etc. This kind of transplantation does not give any guarantee of longer life that one can have without new kidney.