Abstract

Survey on Prevalence of Newcastle Disease Antibodies in Village Poultry at Live Birds Markets in Gombe, Nigeria

The study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease (ND) amongst some village poultry species at poultry markets in Gombe, Nigeria. A total of 1200 (841 Village chickens, 320 Guinea Fowls and 39 Pigeons) sera samples were tested. Haemagglutination inhibition test revealed an overall ND virus (NDV) antibodies prevalent rate of 53.7% (644/1200). The seroprevalence of antibodies to ND was found to be higher in Village chickens 527/841 (62.7%) followed by Pigeons 19/39 (48.7%) and Guinea Fowls 98/320 (30.6%) respectively and were found to be seropositive with Geometric Mean Titres (GMT) of 1.9 to 5.9. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in antibodies to ND seroprevalence rates among the different sampling locations. Species of poultry was found to be associated with ND seroprevalence (P ≤ 0.05) in this study. Newcastle disease antibodies was statistically significantly (P<0.0001) higher in Village chickens compared to Guinea Fowls at 95 CI (odd ratio=0.4887). However, there was no statistical significance (P=0.4106) difference of ND antibodies between Village chickens and Pigeons at 95% CI (odd ratio=0.7775) and also between pigeons and Guinea Fowls (P=0.1426 at 95% CI, odd ratio=1.591). These poultry species could play significant role in the epidemiology and transmission of the Newcastle disease to more the susceptible commercial exotic chickens or other immune deficient village poultry species especially where reared in close proximity. Therefore, free routine ND vaccination campaign should be launched in the study areas with more emphases targeting the Village poultry species in order to block the epidemic cycle of the virus. Moreover, village poultry farmers should be enlightened on the economic significance of the disease and the need to maintain strict biosecurity measures on their poultry farms.


Author(s): Lawal JR, El-Yuguda AD and Ibrahim UI

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