Background: Type 2 diabetes is a complex disorder and metabolic syndrome in combination with diabetes leads to increased risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications due to associated dyslipidemia, hypertension and obesity. The present study evaluates the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes patients and the risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome.
Methods: Fasting blood samples of 680 diabetes patients (340 males and 340 females) were collected with informed consent. The lipid profile, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters (weight, height and waist measurements) were assessed using standardized techniques. The criteria given by IDF (2006) were used for assessment of metabolic syndrome.
Findings: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in females (43.5%) as compared to males (34.1%). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was more in females in the age group 31-40 years (29.1%) and 41-50 years (29.1%) whereas in males, the prevalence was more in 41-50 years (44.8%) and 51-60 years (44.8%) age groups. In females, central obesity (81.7%) and hypertension (64.7%) followed by hypertriglyceridemia (68.1%) were the driving forces for metabolic syndrome whereas in males, it were hypertriglyceridemia (68.1%) and central obesity (67.3%), followed by hypertension (59.4%). Based on BMI, 27.4% males were overweight; 55% were obese and only 17.6% had normal BMI whereas in the females, 15.6% were overweight; 75.9% were obese and only 8.5% had normal BMI ranges. The male diabetes patients with metabolic syndrome had clustering of central obesity and diabetes with any two other risk factors and in females, it was central obesity and diabetes with any one risk factor. Only few individuals had clustering of all the risk factors.
Conclusion: MetS risk factors were high among this population. Increased serum triglyceride for men and central obesity for women were the strongest risk factors. Metabolic syndrome is a significant health problem that needs to be tackled with proven strategies.