Oral LD50 of total saponins and tannins isolated from Dialium guineense stem bark
Background and Objective: The safety of bioactive compounds isolated from plant extracts has become a global concern. The aim of this study was to determine the oral LD50 of total saponins and tannins isolated from Dialium guineense stem bark using Sprague Dawley rats.
Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=13) weighing 150-180 g (mean weight=165 ± 15 g) were used for this study. The aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of the plant stem bark were obtained using cold maceration method. The lorke method was used to determine oral LD50 of isolated total saponins and tannins of D. guineense. Signs of toxicity and possible death of rats were also monitored for twenty-four (24) h.
Results: The major signs of toxicity observed within 24 h were: difficulty in breathing, loss of appetite and general weakness. No deaths were recorded in both phases and all the animals in each phytochemical group survived. The oral LD50 of total saponins and tannins of D. guineense were greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight (bwt).
Conclusion: The findings of this study have shown that saponins and tannins of D. guineense stem bark are not toxic at doses not exceeding 5000 mg/kg bwt.