Oral acute toxicity (LD50) study of different solvent extracts of Abrus precatorius Linn leaves in wistar rats

Abrus precatorius leaves have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases including cough, malaria and infertility in women. It has also been shown to have various useful pharmacological effects. In this study, oral acute toxicity of the aqueous, 70% methanol, Petroleum ether and Acetone extracts were investigated. The graphical method of Miller and Tainter was used to estimate their LD50, using graded doses ≤ 5000 mg/kg (oral limit dose). Mortality rate, body and organ weight changes were also measured in all treatment groups. Acetone extract had the lowest LD50 value (187mg/kg) indicating higher toxicity. The study also revealed that methanol was the least toxic solvent (3942mg/kg) used in the extraction. Histopathological results reveal pathological changes in the organs examined, revealing a possible hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of the extracts at the oral limit dose.

Author(s): Ijeoma H. Ogbuehi, Omotayo O. Ebong and Atuboyedia W. Obianime

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