Dilated myocardiopatia in a newborn, a case report

Dilated cardiomyopathy is defined by the presence of a dilated left ventricle (LV) with systolic dysfunction in the absence of a hemodynamic cause that can produce the existent dilation and dysfunction. The incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy are estimate in United States at 1.1 cases per 100 000 person-years in children under 20 years, with an incidence of 8.3 cases per 100 000 person-years in children under 1 year old. Are more common in male. About the half of the cases under 20 years old patients that have dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), between the 10% to 25% of cases is associated to acute myocarditis. Also this kind of pathologys have an elevated mortality.

About the pathogenetic causes of dilated cardiomyopathy categories it can be;

  • primary (idiopathic, familial/genetic mutations)
  •  secondary (inflammatory, viral, immunity diseases, toxin associated, metabolic disorders, fatty acid oxidation disorders, glycogen storage diseases {type II y IV}, lyposomal store disorders, nutritional disorders, structural heart diseases, pulmonary diseases) )

The idiopathic causes is the most common that can reach up to the 70%.

The pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy makes that approximately 1/3 of the myocardial cels presents apoptosis or necrosis with compensatory hypertrophy, with pathology remodelation of the heart, with growth of the miocardiac mase, ventricular dilation and slim of the ventricular walls.

Author(s): Francisco Javier Sanchez Reyes

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