Scientifically the term nephrolithiasis is defined as process of formation of kidney stone.. Formation of kidney stone takes place because of both genetic and environmental factors. Stone formation is also the result of enhanced mineral level in urine eg. Carbonates, sulphates, sulphides, calcium, magnesium etc. Kidney stone is a common reason of pain in the abdomen, flank or groin as well as it is a cause of blood in urine. There are so many diagnostic technique has been discovered such as Abdominal CT scan, abdominal or kidney MRI, X-ray, intravenous pyelogram, kidney ultrasound etc. Treatment for this is variable according to the severity of the pain. Drinking water for at least 6-8 glass per day will help to produce large amount of urine and promotes the stone pass. For some types of stone doctors will prescribe allopurinol, antibiotics, diuretics, phosphate solutions, water pills, sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate etc.
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