Influenza viruses are roughly spherical, although somewhat pleomorphic, particles, ranging from 80 to 120 nm in diameter presents a model of the overall structure of the influenza virus. A characteristic feature of influenza virus particles is their external layer of approximately 500 spike-like projections. These spikes represent the envelope glycoproteins HA (which has a rod-like shape) and NA (which is mushroom-shaped). The HA spike is a trimer, consisting of three individual HA monomers, while the NA spike is a tetramer.
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