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Neurosciences & Brain Imaging

About Neurosciences & Brain Imaging

Neurosciences & Brain Imaging is an open access Journal that features scientific works of significant importance in neuroscience and neuronal imaging. The scope of the Journal encompasses diverse specialties and subspecialties of Neuroscience and neuronal imaging such as: affective neuroscience, behavioral and cognitive neuroscience, cellular neuroscience, clinical neuroscience, computational neuroscience, evolutionary neuroscience, molecular neuroscience, neural engineering, neuroethology, neuroheuristics, neuroimaging, neuroinformatics, neurolinguistics, neurophysics, neurophysiology, neuropsychology, paleoneurology, social neuroscience, systems neuroscience, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

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“Neurosciences & Brain Imaging” is an asset for researchers and scholars who wish to be kept abreast of the latest developments in Neurology and neuronal imaging techniques. The published studies would help the readers build on the current knowledge in the field. Medical practitioners and policy makers can also benefit from the works published in the journal. Neurosciences & Brain Imaging is helmed by an illustrious editorial board comprised of acclaimed scientists from all over the world.

Every article undergoes a rigorous peer review process and is approved for publication by eminent scientists in the field. The journal thus maintains the highest standards in terms of quality and originality. In addition to Research Articles, the Journal also publishes high quality Case Reports, Perspectives, Commentaries, and Reviews to pique the reader’s interest. Neurosciences & Brain Imaging aims to provide the authors with an extremely streamlined and fast editorial process. The journal believes in expediting the publishing process; towards this, the journal provides advance posting of the accepted articles in the “Articles in press” section.

Cranial Nerve

Cranial nerve connect the muscles and sense organs of the head and thoracic region directly to the brain.Cranial nerves relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and neck. Cranial nerves have paths within and outside the skull.

The paths within the skull are called "intracranial" and the paths outside the skull are called "extracranial".All cranial nerves are paired, which means that they occur on both the right and left sides of the body. The cranial nerves leave the brain via their own individual apertures in the skull.

Twelve Pairs of cranial nerves are I Olfactory (Smell), II Optic (Sight), III Oculomotor (Moves eyelid and eyeball and adjusts the pupil and lens of the eye), IV Trochlear (Moves eyeballs), V Trigeminal (Facial muscles incl. chewing; Facial sensations), VI Abducens (Moves eyeballs), VII Facial (Taste, tears, saliva, facial expressions), VIII Vestibulocochlear (Auditory), IX Glossopharyngeal (Swallowing, saliva, taste), X Vagus (Control of PNS e.g. smooth muscles of GI tract), XI Accessory (Moving head & shoulders, swallowing), XII Hypoglossal (Tongue muscles - speech & swallowing).

Nerve Cells

The neurons or nerve cells are connected with other nerve cells where the electric nerve impulses are originated, processed, transmitted, and received.

Nerve cell functions include Communication and coordination, Sensory nerves carries the message to brain, allows us to react to a stimulus, conduct electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body, carries messages from other neurons to a cell body.

Nerve cells are classified as Sensory nerve cells, Motor nerve cells, Association nerve cell.

Brain-Computer Interface

Brain computer interface technology represents a highly growing field of research with application systems.

Brain Computer Interface system records the brain waves and sends them to the computer system to complete the intended task. The transmitted waves are used to express an idea or control an object.

Brain computer interface could be helpful especially for safety applications and where the response time is crucial. They can also be used to increase the accuracy of the Human-Computer Interface systems.

Structural Imaging

Structural imaging of the brain deals with the structure of the brain and the diagnosis of gross intracranial disease such as tumor, strokes and injury.

The two types of structural imaging techniques are computerized tomography or computerized axial tomography (CT or CAT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Paleoneurobiology

Paleoneurobiology is the study of brain evolution by analysis of brain endocasts to determine endocranial traits and volumes. It is a subdivision of neuroscience.

Paleoneurobiology combines techniques from other fields of study including paleontology and archaeology. It reveals specific insight concerning human evolution.

Affective neuroscience

Affective neuroscience examines the emotional responses created by the brain. It combines neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood.

Autonomic nervous system

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates the functions of our internal organs (the viscera) such as the heart, stomach and intestines.

ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system and it also controls some of the muscles within the body. ANS is most important in two situations: In emergencies that cause stress and require us to "fight" or take "flight" (run away) and in non-emergencies that allow us to "rest" and "digest.

ANS is divided into three parts: Sympathetic nervous system, Parasympathetic nervous system and Enteric nervous system.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a diagnostic tool for mapping brain function. It is a promising tool for treating neuropsychiatric conditions.

A non-invasive technique that consists of a magnetic field emanating from a wire coil held outside the head.The magnetic field induces an electrical current in nearby regions of the brain.

Treatment for depression involves delivering repetitive magnetic pulses. Hence called repetitive TMS or rTMS.

Connectome

Connectome is a detailed map, or “wiring diagram,” of the myriad neural connections that make up the brain and nervous system.

Connectome would include the mapping of all neural connections within an organism's nervous system.

It helps researches to understand correlation of human brain physiology with abilities and behaviours.

Neurogenesis

The production of new, maturing neurons by neural stem and progenitor cells is called neurogenesis.

Rapid neurogenesis occurs in the fetal brain in humans and other animals. It occurs in all species of animals except the porifera(sponges) and placozoans.

During embryonic development, the mammalian central nervous system, brain and spinal cord is derived from the neural tube, which contains neural stem cells that will later generate neurons.

Adult neurogenesis has been shown to occur at low levels compared with development, and in only two regions of the brain: the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) of the striatum and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.

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