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Viewing Climate Change Impact through Maize Varietal Sowing at Variant Intervals

Shabir Muhammad1*, Ishaq Ahmad Mian1 and Muhammad Fawad2

1Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan

2Department of Weed Science, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan

Corresponding Author:
Shabir Muhammad
Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan
Email: [email protected]

Received Date: March 03, 2019; Accepted Date: March 13, 2019; Published Date: April 25, 2019

Citation: Muhammad S, Mian AI, Fawad M (2019) viewing climate change impact through maize varietal sowing at variant intervals. Eur Exp Biol Vol.9 No. 1:3. doi: 10.21767/2248-9215.100080

 
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Abstract

Climate change is one of the detrimental factors for plant growth. A change in temperature can lead to a high loss in crop productivity. Keeping the detrimental effect of climate change on plant growth and productivity, research was carried out to mitigate the climate effect on crop productivity. Ten maize hybrids and varieties were selected for the experiment and were sown on five different sowing times. The experimental analysis was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design with split plots arrangement having three replications. Sowing times were allocated to main plots while varieties and hybrids were allotted to the subplots, respectively. The results revealed that different varieties and hybrid shows a different response to variant sowing times. Maximum plant height was recorded by SB-989, maximum biological yield was recorded by Azam variety while maximum grain yield was recorded by SB-909 hybrid maize cultivar. Similarly early sowing time 5th June showed better results in terms of plant height, grain yield and biological yield. From the results, it was concluded that maize variety showed by sown on 5th June to attain maximum output in terms of yield and yield attributes.

Keywords

Sowing times; Varieties; Hybrids; Maize; Climate change

Introduction

Maize (Zea mays L.) is known to be the most important cereal crop after wheat and rice. Mostly grown well in temperate, tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is used for multipurpose for example as a food for humans, feed for animals and as a raw material for industries. In terms of total production and yield per unit area maize is the leading cereal of the world with total production of 695 tons and 4815 kg yield ha-1 [1-8]. It is used as a raw material in the starch industry for the preparation of many products. In Pakistan, in 2009 maize average production is 3805 kg ha-1 while in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa the average production of maize is 1751 kg ha-1 which is more than 50% less from the average production of Pakistan. Maize is used in industries for the preparation of corn oil, corn sugar, corn protein, corn flacks and corn syrup [9].

Climate is known to be the average weather condition of an area whereas some changes or variations in the average weather condition is climate change. Main causes for climate change is pollutants release to the environment by living entities (Biotic), volcanic eruptions, imbalanced solar radiations received on the earth surface and tectonic plates. Production of the crop is targeted differently by climate change in different areas of the world. In some places, it causes enhancement in crop productivity while mostly results in reduction [10-18]. In sustainable farming, organic manure is the most common fertilizer used in the developing countries [19-31]. For sustainable growth, the most important step is the selection of the best variety for production [9]. Sowing date impact on crop is as much important as that of selection of variety for sustaining productivity under the scenario of climate change mostly high summer temperature effect anthesis in some areas of Pakistan [3]. A particular sowing date is very important for optimum production with respect to regional climate change [18]. Fixed sowing time is important for such a regional climate change [9]. Due to high seasonal temperature effect on seeds, time of pollination, grain filling and moisture fluctuation of field productivity incomes are also changing the productivity of maize crop [10,11]. Soil fertility and water availability should be the prime factors for the farmers locally or non-local [3]. However, planting date response depending on weather variability at a given location, also differ to a great deal among the years and locations etc. The present study was initiated to investigate the performance of maize varieties when sown in different time for yield and yield contributing traits under the agro-climatic condition of Pakistan [17].

Materials and Methods

Description of the study area

The field experiment was conducted at Mohmand Agency Ghazi Beg Kaly (FATA, Federal Administrated Tribal Area). The site was selected on the main road about 5 kilometres away from Ghalanai, Agency headquarter. The physic-chemical properties of the site are given in Table 1. It lies between 34° 10' to 34° 43' north latitudes and 70° 58' to 71° 42' east longitudes. The climate in Mohmand agency is hot in the summer season while cool in winter. The summer season commences from May and continues for 4 months till 31st August [20-22]. The winter season starts from November and continues till February. The rainfall is scanty. Most of the rainfall is during the winter season. The main agricultural areas in the valleys of Mohmand receive about 100 mm of average rainfall per annum.

Varieties SD 1 SD 2 SD 3 SD 4 SD 5 Mean
V 1 252 207 223 223 221 225c
V 2 272 224 200 234 221 230bc
V 3 284 280 270 250 221 261a
V 4 272 212 192 170 212 212d
V 5 279 202 150 210 212 211d
V 6 272 230 212 150 212 215d
V 7 223 170 214 208 221 207d
V 8 272 250 192 240 222 236b
V 9 194 220 160 190 212 196e
V 10 272 240 180 231 220 229bc
Mean 259a 224b 200e 211d 218c 222

Table 1: Plant height of different maize varieties as affected by different sowing dates and varieties.

Soil samples collection

A total of 6 soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-15 cm with the help of soil auger from Mohmand Agency Ghazi Beg Kaly FATA, from each subplot. Each sample was then labelled indicating the location from where the samples were collected. Samples were then transported to the laboratory of Soil and Environmental science Depart. University of Agriculture Peshawar [26-28].

Field experimental design

A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having three replications was used. Factor-A (Sowing Dates) was in main plots while Factor-B (Varieties) was in the subplots [29,30]. The main focus of the research was to study the effect of sowing time on different varieties of the maize crop. Detail of treatments is as follows.

Field preparation

The total size of the research field was 2400 m2 (60 m × 40 m). As per the desired layout, the field was divided into 50 small experimental units with 24 m2 (6 m × 4 m) each. The tillage was done by tractor to improve its physical properties like increasing soil aeration and improvement of water infiltration [32-35]. The soil was ploughed with chisel plow to cut soil then used the disc plow to invert the soil. Tillage was used to cut the remaining residues of the previous crop and to break the soil clods and pulverize the soil. At the end, planking was done to level the field [36]. After the completion of tillage operations, a complete layout was marked to separate the area for different sowing methods, water channels and borders [37].

\Factor-A: SD1; SD2; SD3; SD4; SD5

Sowing dates for Factor A: 1 June 2015; 10 June 2015; 22 June 2015; 3 July 2015; 13 July 2015

Factor-B: V1; V2; V3; V4; V5; V6; V7; V8; V9; V10

Varieties for Factor B: CS-220; CS-200; SB-989; IQBAL; W-888; JALAL; SB-909; AZAM; BABAR; SB-292

Data was recorded for the following parameter

1. Plant height (cm)

2. Biological yield (kg ha-1)

3. Grain yield (kg ha-1)

Agronomic data

The following agronomic data were collected.

Plant height (cm)

At physiological maturity, plant heights were recorded for each subplot by randomly measuring 20 selected plants from the base of the plant to the tip of tassel and average was recorded [38].

Fresh biomass (kg ha-1)

Three rows were harvested and the fresh biomass including the cobs was weight and the data were converted to kg ha-1[39].

Grain yield (kg ha-1)

Three rows were harvested and cobs were weight. For moisture content, three cobs randomly selected in 20 plants then dry the cobs in sunlight and then remove the grains from sheets, and weighted with digital balance then convert the gram weight of grains into grain yield (kg ha-1) through the following formula [40]. The moisture content was deducted from the fresh grain weight.

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Results and Discussion

Soils of the area are generally medium textured to clay-loam and are low in natural fertility, Nitrogen, organic matter and Phosphorus are deficient. The soils are having a pH of 7.5 to 8.5.

Plant height (cm)

Data presented in (Table 2) showed that sowing dates, varieties and interaction between sowing dates and varieties had a significant effect on plant height. The tallest plants of 261 cm were recorded in V3 (SB-989) followed by V8 (AZAM) and V2 (CS-200), while the smallest plants (196 cm) were recorded in V9 (BABAR). This was due to the fact that plant height is a genetically controlled factor so the height of different varieties does not remain equal. These results are in accordance with the results of Ali (1994) who also reported a difference of plant height in different maize varieties. Similarly, tallest plants of 259 cm were recorded in SD1 (June 1st) followed by SD2 (10 June) and SD5 (13 July) while the smallest plants of 200 cm were recorded in SD3 (22 June). The interaction effect of variety ×sowing date on plant height was significant, indicating that varieties differed under different sowing dates (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Interaction effect of varieties (V) and sowing dates (D) on plant height (cm) of different maize varieties.

Varieties SD 1 SD 2 SD 3 SD 4 SD 5 mean
V 1 33334 27667 30389 30389 26723 29701c
V 2 30001 26667 26667 27701 26367 27481d
V 3 37556 38223 31667 20001 26090 30707b
V 4 33334 19367 15001 10001 25512 20643g
V 5 40001 21667 10001 18334 26678 23336f
V 6 46667 33334 31034 13334 27023 30279bc
V 7 40000 16667 23445 26667 27234 26803d
V 8 40112 43334 20001 34367 26378 32839a
V 9 20945 28334 13334 16723 24001 20668g
V 10 36778 23112 13334 24367 25034 24525e
Mean 35873a 27837b 21488e 22189d 26104c 26698

Table 2: Biological yield (kg ha-1) of different maize varieties as affected by different sowing dates and varieties.

The tallest plant of 284 cm was recorded in V3 (SB-989) when sown on SD1 (1 June) followed by V3 (SB-989) and V5 (W-888) sown on SD2 (10 June) and SD1 (June 1st) respectively, while the smallest plant of 151 cm was recorded in V6 (JALAL) when sown on SD4 (3 July). The results are in the conformity of Beirigi et al. who reported that positive effect of sowing dates on plant height when sowing was delayed to June [41-44].

Biological yield

Data presented in (Table 3) showed that biological yield (kg ha-1) was significantly affected by sowing dates and varieties as well as by interaction between the two. Significant differences were noted among the maize varieties in biological yield. The maximum biological yield of 32839 kg ha-1 was recorded in V8 (AZAM) followed by V3 (SB-989) and V6 (JALAL), while the minimum biological yield of 20644 kg ha-1 was recorded in V4 (IQBAL). Similarly, the maximum biological yield of 35874 kg ha-1 was recorded from SD1 (1 June) followed by SD2 (10 June) and SD5 (13 July), while the minimum biological yield of 21487 kg ha-1 was recorded from SD3 (22 June) [6]. The interaction effect of variety × sowing date on biological yield was significant, indicating that varieties differed under different sowing dates (Figure 2). Maximum biological yield of 46668 kg ha-1 was recorded in V6 (JALAL) when sown on SD1 (1 June) followed by V8 (AZAM) sown on SD2 (10 June) and SD1 (1 June) respectively, while minimum biological yield of 10000 kg ha-1 was recorded in V4 (IQBAL) when sown on SD4 (3rd July). Our results are in agreement with Azad et al. [6] They reported that on the first and Second sowing dates (early sowing) due to larger growth period, the appropriate use of environmental factors affecting growth, increase of the dry matter in various parts of plants, biological yield enhanced.

Figure 2: Interaction effect of varieties (V) and sowing dates (D) biological yield (kg ha-1) of different maize varieties.

Varieties SD 1 SD 2 SD 3 SD 4 SD 5 Mean
V 1 5691 2649 2756 4328 3955 3876c
V 2 5215 2215 2246 4418 4344 3688d
V 3 5153 4600 4450 1853 3853 3982c
V 4 4812 4238 3011 3063 4238 3873c
V 5 5461 4479 4864 3227 3530 4312b
V 6 4555 4156 4671 4420 4175 4396b
V 7 4148 4724 4149 5861 4446 4666a
V 8 5242 4721 1138 2823 4120 3609d
V 9 4346 4284 1353 2854 4077 3383e
V 10 4744 4953 3454 4124 4339 4323b
Mean 4937a 4102b 3209d 3697c 4108b 4011

Table 3: Grain yield (kg ha-1) of different maize varieties as affected by different sowing dates and varieties.

Grain yield

Data presented in (Table 3) showed that grain yield (kg ha-1) was significantly affected by sowing dates and varieties as well as by interaction between the two. Significant differences were noted among the maize varieties in grain yield. Maximum grain yield of 4666 kg ha-1 was recorded inV7 (SB-909) followed by V6 (JALAL) and V10 (SB-292), while minimum grain yield of 3382 kg ha-1 was recorded in V9 (BABAR). Variation in yield revealed a diverse genetic background of varieties tested in this study. These results are in line with those of McCutcheon et al. who reported significant differences among maize cultivars for grain yield. Similarly, maximum grain yield of 4937 kg ha-1 was recorded from SD (1 June) followed by SD5 (13 July) and SD2 (10 June), while minimum grain yield of 3209 kg ha-1 was recorded from SD3 (June 22). The interaction effect of variety × sowing date on grain yield was significant, indicating that varieties differed under different sowing dates (Figure 3). Maximum grain yield of 5861 kg ha-1 was recorded in V7 (SB-909) when sown on SD4 (3 July) followed by V1 (CS-220), while minimum grain yield of kg ha-1 was recorded in V8 (AZAM) when sown on SD3 (June 22). Ali et al. also found a significant interaction effect of sowing dates and varieties for grain yield [3]. These results are similar to the reports of Hardman et al. Namaka et al. and Kamara et al. who had noted a considerable reduction in yield and yield components when sowing was delayed [18-22].

Figure 3: Interaction effect of varieties (V) and sowing dates (D) grain yield (kg ha-1) of different maize varieties.

Conclusion

From the results, it was concluded that 1st June sowing time of maize showed best results compared to other sowing times. SB-909 performs better among other varieties for grain yield and yield components.

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