Reach Us +44-1904-929220
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Abstract

Wheat - A Precious Nutrient That Can Become Harmful: Wheat/Gluten Related Disorders

Wheat grains have a complex structure which contains an organized distribution of nutrients. Cooking induces gluten formation. Celiac Disease and Wheat Allergy are well known wheat-related disorders, the first being a gluten-dependent autoimmune enteropathy, the latter a hypersensitivity IgE - mediated reaction. The pathogenetic mechanism of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still under investigation. The clinical diagnosis is: the presence, in relation to the ingestion of gluten containing foods, of intestinal and extra- intestinal symptoms in patients where celiac disease and wheat allergy have already been excluded. There is ongoing evidence that non- gluten derived proteins have an important pathogenetic role in non-celiac gluten sensitivity and probably also in celiac disease: Amylase Trypsin Inhibitors-ATIs are proteins that are also present in rye and barley; they are triggers of innate immune response in non-celiac gluten sensitivity. They may also exacerbate immunomediate inflammatory bowel diseases. Gluten-free diet is the only effective therapy both in celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Alternative therapeutic strategies are under investigation in Celiac Disease: -exogenous enzyme gluten digestion to obtain less toxic fragments; - molecules able to be remodeling enterocyte tight junctions which become permeable in celiac disease. Researches should be devoted to creating a less toxic grain, while to date grain has been genetically modified to increase gluten content. We advise a future for researches in agronomy. A role for functional and nutraceutical foods must be investigated. Another emerging issue is due to the consciousness of wheat/gluten-microbiota-brain and mind interactions.


Author(s): Fiorenza Bonvicini, Francesco Simeoni, Gabriele Gasbarrini, Giovanni Gasbarrini and Antonio Gasbarrini

Abstract | Full-Text | PDF

Share this  Facebook  Twitter  LinkedIn  Google+
Flyer image

Abstracted/Indexed in

  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Cosmos IF
  • Secret Search Engine Labs