Attempts have been made to improve the effectiveness of generation selection in Cowpea Vigna unguiculata. This study compared the response to direct and indirect generation selection for yield and yield traits using two crosses of cowpea with a common parent- Ife Brown (IFB) to give IFB X Danilla and IFB X IAR 48w, the mean differences between selected high and low groups at the F2 were greater than those derived from F3 and F4 family selections. Realized heritability (RH) estimates were high for number of branch per plant, Length of peduncle, number of pods, and seeds per plant when selection is made at the F3 with response in the F4. Genetic advance (GA) was very high for number of branch per plant, Length of peduncle and seed yield. The high values for these traits using RH and GA estimates justify the effectiveness of making reliable selection for these indirect and direct yield traits in the early generation of F2 and F3. The use of RH and GA demonstrated the complementary use of these two parameters in best describing trait genetic performance in highly variable planting environment.
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