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Saliva and Oral Health in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Purpose: It’s estimated that 9% of children in the United States have been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and many take medications to control their disease. Since the results of clinical studies on the oral health of ADHD patients have been inconclusive, we compared salivary function and oral health in medicated and non-medicated ADHD and healthy subjects. Methods: Fifty (50) children (6-17 y; female/ male: 1:1.8) were recruited. Group 1 subjects were diagnosed with ADHD and medicated (n=16), Group 2 had ADHD and not medicated (n=17), and Group 3 were healthy (n=17). Whole saliva was collected and flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and level of secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA), cortisol and total protein determined. Nonparametric statistics were used. Results: ADHD children taking medication did not show any significant change in salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and level of salivary total protein, sIgA, and cortisol compared to non-medicated ADHD and healthy subjects (P>0.5). Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) has been correlated with caries risk, but in these subjects there was no significant difference between groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that medicated and non-medicated ADHD patients (6-17 y) have no additional risk for oral diseases or salivary dysfunction compared to healthy controls.

Author(s): Alkhodier H, Wang H, Sun H, Zhong W, Cappelli DP, Liu JA, Maria-Jose CM and Chih-Ko Y

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