This study estimated the productivity and profitability of cowpea production in Kaduna State, north central Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select 150 cowpea farmers who were interviewed for the study. Information on the inputs used and output realized in cowpea production were collected from the farmers using well structured questionnaires. The data generated from the information collected were subjected to various analyses using the production function analysis model, total factor productivity (TFP) and the gross margin equations. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the regression was 83% with the coefficients of all the input variables (except fertilizer) significant different levels. The TFP shows that the combined factor inputs used in cowpea production in the study area has a positive effect on cowpea output. Cowpea production in Kaduna state was profitable with a gross margin of N13584594. It was also found that the gross margin per hectare in cowpea production in the study area was N46, 090 while the return per Naira (N) invested was 45kobo. It was further discovered that inputs were inefficiently utilized. Suitable adjustment in the inputs used was recommended to further widen the profit margin.
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