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Abstract

Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activities of Spinach Leaf

The nutritional and medicinal benefits of vegetables provide a better support for human wellbeing. There are several edible vegetables which are used in day to day kitchen in different forms. The usages of green leafy vegetables are limited to a specific geographical location. The study screened for phytochemicals and determined antibacterial activities of Spinacia oleracea which is one of the most important vegetable used in Nigeria. The presence of phytochemicals including phitobatamin, saponins, phenol, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, terpenes and cardenolides were determined in the Spinacia oleracea. The extract of Spinacia oleracea exhibits the presence of phitobatamin in aqueous extract but absent in ethanol and ethyl acetate crude extracts. The aqueous extract and ethyl acetate crude extract s exhibits presence of saponin but absent in ethanol crude extract. Phenol present in ethanol crude extract but absent in aqueous extract and ethyl acetate crude extract, also flavonoids present in aqueous extract and ethyl acetate crude extract but absent in ethanol crude extract, tannin present in ethanol and ethyl acetate crude extracts but absent in aqueous extract, terpenes present in aqueous extract but absent in ethanol and ethyl acetate crude extracts, steroids present in ethanol crude extract but absent in aqueous extract and ethyl acetate crude extract, glycoside present in ethanol crude extract but absent in aqueous extract and ethyl acetate crude extract and the extract exhibits the presence of cardenolides in ethyl acetate crude and aqueous extract. The antibacterial activities of aqueous extract, ethanol and ethyl acetate crude extracts of the leaves (Spinach oleracea) were evaluated in the present study by analysing the antibacterial activity of this extract. The presence of these bioactive constituents is associated with the antibacterial activity of the plant. The study revealed the absent of antibacterial activity in both ethanol crude extract and aqueous extract (100%, 50% and 25%) against selected bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) but found effective in ethyl acetate crude extract against tested bacteria which revealed the high effective of the extract at 100% concentration but was not able to inhibit the growth of the tested bacteria at 50% and 25% concentration. It was concluded that the extracts of Spinacia oleracea consists of important constituents for pharmacological activities.


Author(s): Olasupo AD*, Aborisade AB and Olagoke OV

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