The present study investigated the physicochemical properties and phytochemical constituents of seed oil of Semecarpus anacardium L. to understand its biopesticidal and therapeutic potential. Preliminary phytochemical studies showed the presence of polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids in seed oil which is extracted using various organic solvents such as n-hexane, petroleum ether, methanol and acetone. 34 to 44 percent of oil was extracted using the said solvents. Physicochemical properties such as saponification value, iodine value, peroxide value, acid value, viscosity, pH, relative density of seed oil of S. anacardium were determined. The results suggest that the seed oils of S. anacardium and their physicochemical properties and phytochemical constituents are found suitable to develop biopesticide formulation for the management of insect pests and fungi. Hence the seed oil of S. anacardium could be considered as an effective biopesticide.