Cancer patients are particularly susceptible to nosocomial infections because of their compromised immune system, and because of the nature of treatment practices they experience. This study analyzed the distribution and the antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from cancer patient during two time periods in the Basrah - Iraq. A total of 428 patients presenting with febrile neutropenia during years 2012 and 2013. During the study period 63.6% Gram-negative bacteria and 36.3% Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from cancer patients during year 2012 while this ratios were increased through 68.1% Gram- negative bacteria and 31.8% Gram- positive bacteria during year 2013. The most common Gram- negative bacteria were Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa while Gram- positive bacteria were Staphylococcs epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Many of Gram- negstive and Gram- positive bacteria were high resistance for many of antibiotics and significant differences during the two study periods, especially against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus.
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