A biosensor is an analytical tool that comprises two essential components – an immobilized biocomponent, in intimate contact with a transducer that converts a biological signal into a measurable electrical signal. In the present study, electrochemical insulin biosensor is described. It has been developed by immobilizing red blood cells (RBC) in carbon paste electrode (CPE) which contain enzyme hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ,adeniosine triphosphate(ATP),and insulin receptor with concomitant generation of NADPH and its oxidation is measured amperiometrically at 0.32 V. The response is linear, covers the calibration range 0.006-0.09 nM with stability of two weeks and its detection limit is 0.006 nM which is significantly lower than the existing methods. The results were statistically significant with p value less than 0.0001. The conventional analytical techniques used although precise, are time consuming where as developed insulin biosensor have the advantage of ease of use, ecofriendly, sensitive, low cost and lower detection limit. The developed insulin biosensor has been applied for detection of insulin in normal subjects, non-insulin dependent and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients.
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