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Effect Wind Speed and Dehydration Hamoun Wetland on Characterization of Ionic Composition of Tsp and Pm during the 120 Day Winds of Sistan, Iran

Characterizing the ionic composition of total suspended particles (TSP) and particles on the order of ∼2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) during dust storms in Zabol in Jun to October 2014.TSP and PM2.5 mass concentrations were considerably higher in period after dry wetland (ADW) compared with period during dry wetland (DDW) (1358.19 versus 1967.25 μg/m3 for TSP and 354.49 and 392 μg/m3 for PM2.5). Mass concentrations of PM and TSP were ~6 times higher than USEPA standards. The percentage of the total aerosol mass contributed by the ions was higher in DDW than in ADW, showing that water soluble ions were more concentrated in the during dry wetland. Mg2+/K+ and Ca2+/Mg2+ ratios were found to be useful as the indicators for identification of DDW and ADW and day with difference speed wind (D1 to D3) in during the 120 day winds. Results of the present study revealed that concentrations of both TSP and PM during days with speed >10 m/s were considerably higher than those during dust storm with speed wind <5 m/s. Calculation of enrichment factors for TSP and PM2.5 relative to soil region indicated that K+, NH4 +, NO3 - and NO2 - mainly originated were mostly attributed for the anthropogenic activities.

Author(s): Reza Dahmardeh Behrooz, Abbas Esmaili-Sari, Nader Bahramifara

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