Acne vulgaris is one of the most prevalent skin diseases which affect almost 80% of adolescents in the world during their lifetime. Development of specific association between antibiotic and bacteria during repeated treatment develops antibiotic resistance. Medicinal and aromatic plants are widely used as medicine in ancient time. Treatment of acne has been considered as a major research area in pharmaceutical and personal cosmetic care industries. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the phytochemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum, green synthesis of silver nanoparticle and to develop herbal topical gel formulation to treat acne. Ocimum gratissimum is selected based on its antibacterial activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins are present in the extract. Silver nanaoparticle was synthesized using 1 mM aqueous silver nitrate solution from the extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and formation of silver nanoparticle was confirmed by UV spectroscopy. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were stable, spherical shape with average particle size of 207.6 nm and the polydispersity index was found to be 0.256. Synthesized silver nanoparticles was incorporated into gel base and evaluated for its physical properties such as pH, viscosity, spreadability and antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results obtained in the developed formulation showed no lumps, had uniform color dispersion and were free from any fiber and particle. It was also observed to have easy washablity, good spreadability, pH was found to be 6.72 and 6.80 similar to pH of the skin. The antibacterial study of the developed formulation showed inhibitory activity against Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Synthesized silver nanoparticle of Ocimum gratissimum showed higher activity than the extract. Hence, silver nanoparticle of Ocimum gratissiumum in aqueous gel-base can be used as an appropriate formulation for treatment of acne vulgaris.
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