Occurrence of salts in irrigation water forms ions. The most common salts in water are table salt (Sodium Chloride NaCl), gypsum (Calcium Sulphate CaSO4), Epsom salts (Magnesium Sulphate MgSO4) and baking soda salt (Sodium Bicarbonate NaHCO3). The dissolved cations are Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+) and Sodium (Na+), while the most common anions are Chloride (Cl-), Sulfate (SO4 2-) and Bicarbonate (HCO3 -). The ratio of these ions however varies from one water supply to another. Potassium (K+), Carbonate (CO3 2-) and Nitrate (NO3 -) also exist in water, but concentration of these constituents is comparatively low. Presence of these ions either in low or in high concentration would certainly affect the quality of irrigation water. Problematic irrigation water supply to the crop would damage it in different aspects. The quality parameters such as pH, Sodium hazard, Salt Index, Bicarbonate hazard (RSC), Chloride Hazard, Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP) and Magnesium Hazards can be evaluated by using standard methods and formulae.
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