In recent, artificial neural network (ANN) has been applied for media production for different bioprocesses and enzyme production. Some important studies described comparative account of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). Numerous reports described better production of enzymes and biomolecules by using ANN as compared to RSM. Besides microbiology, ANN has been used in different scientific optimization processes successfully. An introduction to ANN has been given in this review. This review focuses on some studies in which ANN has been used for microbial production of biomolecules using ANN and also described the comparison with RSM.