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Analysis of lead in sachet water production from three senatorial zones of Anambra State, Nigeria

Lead contamination in sachet water production was evaluated in three senatorial zones of Anambra State, Nigeria. Three companies from each senatorial zone were sampled. 10 samples each were collected from different points of production: the point of water source (Point 0), the point after passing through the sand and charcoal filters (Point 1) and the point after passing through series of other filtration processes to the point of packaging (Point 2). Lead concentration in samples collected were determined using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).Samples collected from Anambra central (Table 1) have mean Lead concentration (ppm) ranging from 0.0018 to 0.0094. The lowest and the highest levels were found in samples (CT) at point 1 and (SRD) at point 2 respectively. For Anambra North, the mean lead concentration (ppm) ranges from 0.0012 to 0.004 (Table 2) with the lowest and highest levels occurring in samples (ZAN) at point 0 and (PE) at point 0 respectively while that of Anambra South ranges from 0.0012 to 0.0048 (Table 3) with the lowest and highest levels found in sample (DYCA) at points 0 and 2 respectively.High Lead concentration was recorded from point 0 of two companies from Anambra central (0.004 and 0.005 ppm) and one company from Anambra North (0.004 ppm). High Lead concentration was also recorded from point 1 and point 2 of same companies in Anambra central (0.008 to 0.009 ppm) close to the WHO guideline for lead in drinking water (0.01 ppm). Alternative source of water supply for companies with high lead concentration at point 0 is recommended. Also, evaluation of the plumbing system and management of exposure to generator fumes for companies with high concentration at points 1 and 2 is recommended

Author(s): Ilodigwe EE, Ojukwu CE, Agbata CA, Mbagwu I S and Ajaghaku DL

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